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Hull and Propeller Performance Monitoring (Fuel Conservation and Emission Reduction) Daniel Kane SNAME Climate Change and Ships February 16, 17, 2010 . Introduction. Assessment of CO2 Emission Performance of Ships Marintek, 2005

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Hull and Propeller Performance Monitoring

(Fuel Conservation and Emission Reduction)

Daniel Kane

SNAME Climate Change and Ships February 16, 17, 2010


Assessment of CO2 Emission Performance of ShipsMarintek, 2005

“Reasons behind variation in CO2 index …hull and propeller fouling…”

GHG for Shipping and Implementation Guidance IMO Report, 2006

“…Utilizing ship specific resistance curves, draft, speed and

consumption are more suitable to monitor hull performance…”

List of Early Action Measures to Reduce GHGCal-EPA, 2007

“These measures include methods of hull maintenance and advanced coatings to reduce fouling…”

Hull Resistance Management…”Performance monitoring for hull conditions and fouling”-- IMO Ship Efficiency Management Plan, 2009

propulsion dynamics company charter and milestones
Propulsion Dynamics Company Charter and Milestones

1st CASPER Report (containership) April 03

1st CASPER Report (tanker) April 03

1st CASPER Report (bulker) Sept 04

Recent Press: Teekay Shipping: 90 tankers

Seaspan Ltd: 14 containerships


Norden Tankers– ‘Corporate Social Responsibility’

China Navigation – ‘Technical Fuel Efficiency’

the casper service computerized analysis of ship performance
The CASPER® Service(Computerized Analysis of Ship PERformance)

A system of data collection, post-voyage analysis and (anonymous ship-type comparisons). No additional software or instruments required.

In active use on hundreds of ships with over 1,000 ship-years work. (tankers, bulkers, ro-ro’s, boxships).

Compatible with all performance monitoring, data recording and weather routing systems.

Results of analysis is calculation of added resistance

traditional monitoring vs analysis
Traditional Monitoring vs. Analysis


Procurement of equipment no procurement of equipment

Calibration of equipment calibration of power measures

Debugging software no debugging by shipowner

High frequency of data collection one set of data per week

Establish analysis methods mature analysis methods

Dedicated resources to be effective no R&D staff needed

Years of benchmarking to derive benefit immediate benchmarking and


hydrodynamic techniques revolutions used to calculate speed through water
Hydrodynamic Techniques [Revolutions used to calculate speed through water]

Theoretical Model

  • Length
  • Breadth
  • Draft
  • Displacement
  • Design Speed
  • Propeller Design and RPM

Trial Trip data adjusts this model

Actual “Performance Model”

Observations (evidence-based)

We find the three added resistances:

1) Weather: wind and waves

2) Residual: trim, nozzles, engine degr.

3) Fouling: affects resistance/wake

Ship speed log is not used in the calculation since it is erroneous

outsourcing performance analysis
Outsourcing Performance Analysis

“Today it is necessary to analyze deficiencies…information exchanges are not enough” -- Tanker Shipping Oct. 2009

[Performance Observations]

[Awareness and Implementation]

hull performance factors
Hull Performance Factors

Age of ship / hull shape

Time in port

Service speed

Water temperature

Port water (fouling pressure)

Loading conditions (changes in draft/duration)

Factors in your control

  • Coating selection at newbuild stage
  • Frequency/efficiency of planned maintenance?
  • Treatment of hull in dock: HP Wash? Spotblast? Fullblast?
  • Hull coating selection in drydock
  • Drydock time interval: 3 year? 5 year? 6 year?
buckling weld beads paint roughness fouling
Buckling + Weld Beads + Paint Roughness + Fouling

Courtesy: Norwegian Technical University


Full Correction of Performance Data

(there is only one true curve in this scatter for one loading condition)

True performance and trial trip reference


The added resistance of hull and propeller translates into a speed/fuel penalty(at 15 kn was 57 t/day NOW 67 t/day = 10t/day excess fuel = 31.7 t/day CO2

post docking analysis sisters low cost hull pre treatment higher resistance outdocking
Post-docking Analysis (sisters)(low cost hull pre-treatment = higher resistance outdocking)



‘50% blast’



‘10% blast’

18 added resistance 30
18% (added resistance) 30%

At 22 knots: 140 tons/day

At 140 t/day: 2 knot loss from trials

At 22 knots: 154 tons/day

At 154 t/day: 2.5 knot loss from trials

Reference: 110 tons/day trials at 22 knots

Long Port Stay 20% increase in hull resistance after 4-week stay(speed loss approximately 0.9 kn or increase in fuel use 8 tons/day)

24 t/day of excess CO2 emitted at design speed


time history of added resistance
Time history of added resistance

VLCC on first docking

hull cleanings can t fix roughness
Hull cleanings can’t fix roughness


Outdocking: 40% resistance (at 13 knots, 17 tons/day or more – 1 kn loss)

1st hull cleaning: 3% increase in resistance per month

2nd hull cleaning: 7% increase in resistance per month (21 tons/day or 1.4kn)

Drydock: 40% decrease in resistance (at 13 knots, 10 tons/day saving or 0.5 kn)

reducing emissions nox sox pm co2
Reducing Emissions (NOx, SOx, PM, CO2)

Depends on age of fleet, FOC, docking intervals, etc.

status of world fleet
Status of World Fleet

This table must not be reproduced or disseminated unless notes on following slide are included with the figures in this table.

status of world fleet notes
Status of World Fleet - notes
  • These notes must accompany any reproduction of the previous slide table or figures.
  • Excess fuel use and speed loss is in relation to design speed and draft and actual figures for savings will be reduced for slow steaming and super slow steaming operations.
  • The age of ships vary from 0.5 year - 24 years and time out of dock varies from 1 month - 60 months.
  • Vessels include all commercially available Biocidal and Foul Release hull coating systems.
  • Averages in 6th column mean some ships can save ±3 times the amount of fuel (now) others are in no need of a hull or propeller cleaning (now).
  • Average added resistance varies between fleets; in general, owner/operators have lower added resistance than chartered ships. The average added resistance can be markedly higher for ships in primarily warm/tropical operation and somewhat lower in cold waters.
  • The average added resistance is lower for young fleets under 8 years in age and higher for older fleets
  • The higher average added resistance of boxships relates to the effects of marine growth and roughness on the long, slender hull form compounded by historic demands for tight drydocking schedules (preventing the additional time for full blasting procedures) and short time in ports making cleaning difficult.)
  • - Ability to take action to sustain low fleet average resistance levels will be dictated by voyage activities of the vessel, availability of underwater contractors as well as cost of cleanings and company effort devoted to fuel conservation.
emission reduction future needs
Emission Reduction - Future Needs

“…Most companies have not allocated internal resources to optimize fuel consumption, lack goals and ambitions, do not benchmark and report fuel reduction obtained, and many simply outsource the problem to ship managers…” -- Class Society 2008



Hull and propeller condition should be an established part of the IMO Total CO2 Footprint since: a) mitigating invasive species while reducing fuel use b) immediate $ savings possible NOW on world fleet c) gives technical operator ability to adjust total index


Charter Party contract should give charterer right to acquire sea trial data in order that Charterer may diligently evaluate hull and propeller condition of chartered vessels and reward owners based on true propulsion efficiency. Such a rating system is already developed.