A Brief History of Oceanographic Voyages 1831-1836 HMS Beagle. Charles Darwin voyage to the Galapagos Islands. This voyage coined the term “Oceanography” meaning “Charting of Waters” 1872 – 1876 HMS Challenger. Covered 127,000 kms. 362 stations were established where the following information was gathered: - Water depth, density and temperature measurements taken. - Bottom Samples of plant and animal life retrieved. - Organisms gathered and categorized. - Atmospheric, meteorological and ocean currents studied. - 4717 new species found, 50 volume text resulted and is still referred to today. ( took 20 years to compile.)
A Brief History of Oceanographic Voyages 1925-1927 Meteor. ( German Vessel) Criss-crossed the Atlantic Ocean using the Echo Sounder. This was the first time scientists learned that the bottom of the ocean was rough and irregularn not smooth as previously thought. 1968 – 1983 Glomar Challenger Expedition. United States endeavor. This was a drilling platform that took sediment ans rock samples from the ocean floor. Confirmed the theory of sea-floor spreading. (Plate Tectonics) In her lifetime she travelled over 600,000 kms, drilled 1092 holes and brought up 96 kms of core samples.
Deep Submergence Vehicle AlvinWHOI operates the U.S. Navy-owned Deep Submergence Vehicle (DSV) Alvin as a national oceanographic facility. A typical eight-hour dive takes two scientists and a pilot as deep as 4,500 meters (14,764 feet). This high-tech mini submarine is 23-feet (7 meters) long.
ABE (Autonomous Benthic Explorer) has made approximately 80 dives to the deep seafloor, performing precisely navigated surveys at a maximum depth of 16,500 feet (5,000 meters). ABE particularly excels at near-bottom surveys in rugged seafloor terrain. Typical dives last from 16 to 34 hours, depending on the instrument payload and the bottom terrain. Typical sensor packages include scanning and multibeam sonars, CTD, current meters, and magnetometers.