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  1. Glyphosate resistance in Conyza species is dependent on environmental conditions Gadi Ben-Ami, Tz. Whitefish, Moshe Sibony and Baruch Rubin R H Smith Institute of Plant Science and Genetics in Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel

  2. Conyza spp. on roadsides

  3. C. bonariensis C. canadensis C. albida

  4. Glyphosate • Introduced early 70’s • Excellent and inexpensive herbicide • Widely used all over the world (not only in agriculture) • Applied in over-doses

  5. Glyphosate-Resistant C. bonariensis

  6. Vineyard

  7. Glyphosate • Introduced early 70’s • Excellent and inexpensive herbicide • Widely used all over the world (not only in agriculture) • Applied in over-doses • Over 100 populations of Conyza spp. were collected and examined

  8. C. Canadensis C. bonariensis Glyphosate (kg ae/ ha) Dose response  34/28 Cº O 28/22Cº  22/16Cº  16/10Cº

  9. Linear correlation between temperature regime and response of C. bonariensis and C. canadensis to glyphosate (based on ED50 values)

  10. 1b 340/ 280 220/ 160 160/ 100 280/ 220 Control Response of C. bonariensis (pop. 1b) grown at different temperatures to glyphosate (0.72 kg ae/ha)

  11. Linear correlation between plant age and plant response to glyphosate (0.36 kg ae/ha)

  12. RI ED50 5.7 0.32 3.4 0.20 1.3 0.07 -- 0.06 Effect of glyphosate on shoot fresh weight of different C. bonariensis populations

  13. Effect of glyphosate on plant survival of different C. bonariensis populations

  14. b1 AH A15 b18 Response of C. bonariensis to glyphosate (X=0.72 kg ae/ ha) b1 AH b18

  15. C. bonariensis seedlings before treatment

  16. RIED50 30 0.147 28 0.138 2 0.010 -- 0.005 Effect of glyphosate on C. bonariensis seedlings. Seedling were treated at 14 DAP and harvested 21 DAT

  17.  AH O 15a  1b  18b  Cotton RR In vitro shikimate accumulation in C. bonariensis leaf discs (4 mm) following exposure to glyphosate for 18 h in light

  18. In vivo shikimate accumulation in C. bonariensis plants treated with glyphosate (0.18 kg ae/ha)

  19. * * 14C-glyphosate absorbed in C. bonariensis plants 24 HAT (A) and % translocated to other plant parts

  20. * * * * 14C distribution in treated plants

  21. Glyphosate • Significant effect of plant age and temperature • Confirmed resistance in Conyza bonariensis

  22. How to combat GR? • Use alternative herbicide. Which one? • Use mixtures. With which herbicides?