Organizational Health Dr. Leah Leonard Steckline Director of Behavioral Health Northern Nevada Medical Center
“It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.” Charles Darwin
Organizational Health • An organization’s ability to achieve its goals based on an environment that seeks to improve: • Organization Performance • Support Employee Well-being Job Satisfaction: how s/he thinks, feels and evaluates (judges) her/his job Health (Mental and Physical).
Why care about employee well-being? • Job dissatisfaction is linked to • Higher rates of turnover, absenteeism and tardiness, especially during times of high unemployment (AATBS, 2010) • Fatigue, headaches, ulcers, high blood pressure, alcohol and drug abuse (Frone & Windle, 1997) • Anxiety, worry, tension, irritability and impaired social relationships (Arvey, 1989)
Why care about employee well-being? • Job stress and burnout: physical fatigue or debilitation, stress and emotional exhaustion associated with work. • Burnout more likely with frequent contact with people who are in need of help (e.g. healthcare). • Can cause poor health and increase rates of work-related injuries and accidents (NIOSH, 1998) • “Job stress poses a threat to the health of workers, and in turn, to the health of organizations” National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1998
Goals • Define empirically determined components that increase job satisfaction with practical applications to organizations • Define Work-Family conflict as a key component in emotional well being of employees, the empirical impact of this conflict to organizations and strategies to lessen this conflict. • All in the hopes of increasing your organization’s health.
Job Satisfaction • Interesting work (my skills are being utilized) • Ability to make decisions for oneself on the job • Autonomy: degree to which one has control over daily operations within the job. • Recognition and feedback.
Emotional Well-being • Work family conflict: Occurs when the role demands of career and family are incompatible because work interferes with family (e.g. long hours prevent time with family members) and or family activities and responsibilities interfere with work (e.g. illness of child causes absenteeism) • Associated with reduced marital and life satisfaction, job burnout, job turnover and decreased job productivity. (Duxbury & Higgins, 1991).
Organizational Interventions • Alternative work schedules: Any work schedule that has varying hours or is completed in less than five days a week. • More specifically, they vary on the number of days a week an individual works (e.g. compressed work week), or by the time an individual starts or stops their day (e.g. flex time)
Flex Time • Gives an employee a choice of when to begin and end work while providing a core time when all employees must be present (e.g. 10am-2pm) • Positive impact on: productivity, job satisfaction and absenteeism (Baltes et al., 1999). Workers experience less stress when they have control over their work schedules (Galinsky, Bond, & Friedman, 1996) and that schedule flexibility is associated with reduced work-family conflict (Duxbury, Higgins, & Lee 1994).
Affective Commitment • Refers to a worker’s desire to stay with the company (loyalty) and concern for the company’s welfare. • Link between flex time and affective commitment: payment to employer from the worker in exchange for (some) freedom to choose when to work. • High powered punch if you can incorporate flex time: • Affective commitment is associated with higher levels of motivation, satisfaction, lower absenteeism and turnover, and a greater willingness to make sacrifices for the company (Shore and Martin, 1989). • Retain key, dedicated employees whose personal life demands conflict with traditional work hours
Organizational Interventions • Compressed work week (e.g. 4 10’s) • Research less favorable. Not associated with affective commitment, job performance or absenteeism (Baltes et al., 1999). • Are positive effects on job satisfaction and reducing work-family conflict. • Day Care • Parental Leave Programs
Take Home • Job satisfaction, work family conflict and affective commitment to an organization are all interrelated and have significant impact on your organization’s health. • As organizations/businesses, may not be able to implement all of these right now, or at all. Implementing one or two can increase your organizational health. • By paying attention to these key components you can have more satisfied employees with lower absenteeism and turnover, who are affectively committed to your organization.