center of rail safety critical excellence briefing september 2002 n.
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Center of Rail Safety-Critical Excellence BRIEFING September 2002. USA RAIL SAFETY BRIEFING AGENDA. Center of Rail Safety-Critical Excellence Overview SEAS Interdisciplinary Collaboration International University Collaboration FRA Safety Rule Making Participation

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usa rail safety briefing agenda
  • Center of Rail Safety-Critical Excellence Overview
  • SEAS Interdisciplinary Collaboration
  • International University Collaboration
  • FRA Safety Rule Making Participation
  • Performance-based Rail Safety Enforcement Rule
  • Major Risk USA Assessment Projects
  • Risk Assessment Tool Set Overview
  • Proposed UVA – China Collaboration
center of rail safety critical excellence overview
Center of Rail Safety-Critical Excellence - Overview
  • MISSION: Develop and maintain railroad performance-based safety enforcement standards, risk assessment methodologies and tool sets that support global rail industry safety enforcement.
  • OBJECTIVES: Provide a Monte Carlo risk assessment systems simulation methodology with web-based tool sets and education that is Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) and Association of American Railroads (AAR) compliant.
  • STRATEGY: Implement a UVA School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS) interdisciplinary Rail Center of Safety-Critical Excellence staffed with a permanent research staff, faculty from Electrical and Computer Engineering, Systems Information and Engineering, Civil Engineering, and Cognitive Psychology Laboratory. Establish global university - industry collaboration.
  • EXPECTED RESULTS: Global application of performance-based safety standards, risk assessment methodologies, validated & verified tool sets and education.
seas interdisciplinary collaboration
SEAS Interdisciplinary Collaboration
  • Center is based on a SEAS interdisciplinary collaboration with the Association of American Railroads (AAR) and industry suppliers:
    • Electrical and Computer Engineering Department
      • Monte Carlo systems approach to risk assessment
      • Probabilistic advanced safety train control
    • Systems Information and Engineering Department
      • Historical data mining for validation & verification
      • Human-factors for probabilistic safety behavior
    • Civil Engineering Department
      • Guideway structures probabilistic behavior models
      • Crash-worthiness / accident severity
    • Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department
      • Maglev levitation safety hazards and performance
    • Cognitive Measurements Laboratory
      • Probabilistic human-factors for safety measurements
international university collaboration
International University Collaboration
  • Collaboration is underway with the following German technical universities:
    • Technical University of Braunschweig
    • Technical University of Dresden
fra safety enforcement rule making
FRA Safety Enforcement Rule Making
  • Center has participated since 1997 in the preparation of the FRA performance-based safety standard rule making that includes the following:
    • Railroad Safety Program Plan
      • Defines the Safety Plan process a railroad operator will follow
    • Railroad Product Safety Plan
      • Requires that a Product Safety Plan be written for each system that is deployed by the railroad operator
      • Product Safety Plan must include:
        • Traffic Flow Density
        • Human-factors
        • Quantified Risk Assessment
        • Extensive Safety-Critical Documentation
        • Documentation Configuration Control & Test Plan
        • Operational Rule Book
performance based rail safety enforcement rule
Performance-based Rail Safety Enforcement Rule
  • Performance-based safety standards require the quantification of safety as a societal cost risk versus train miles traveled
  • A Product Safety Plan is required for each system that is deployed by a railroad and the following quantification must be demonstrated:
  • Risk NEW << Risk Old
    • Train Miles Traveled
    • High Degree of Confidence
    • Compliance to Coverage for all Safety-Critical Devices
major center usa risk assessment projects
Major Center USA Risk Assessment Projects
  • CSX: Communication-based Traffic Management (CBTM)
    • 126 mile line
    • Unit coal trains and other mixed mode traffic
  • New York City Transit (NYCT): Communication-based Train Control (CBTC)
    • 22 mile dual track line with crossovers
    • High performance transit railway operations
    • 60 second headways and 30 second train station dwell time
  • Lockheed Martin: Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) Positive Train Control (PTC)
    • 126 mile line with mixed mode operations
    • High speed passenger (110 MPH) trains and freight
  • Maglev, Inc: City of Pittsburgh, “Pennsylvania Project”
    • 45 miles dual crossover guideway with 250 MPH planned speeds
    • Passenger & light freight operation
  • FRA: Web-based predictive risk assessment methodologies and tool set
risk assessment tool set overview
Risk Assessment Tool Set Overview
    • Subject to:
    • Traffic throughput density
    • Basic principles of safety
    • Assumptions
    • Constraints
    • Operational rule book compliance
    • Track plan infrastructure: track plan, guideway, bridges, crossings
    • Train movement dynamics multi-dimensional model
    • Signaling and control system multi-state probabilistic model
    • Human-factors probabilistic model
    • Train severity mishap model
    • Proof-of-correctness (Hazard-free validation)
    • Proof-of-safety risk (Non-hazard-free verification)
    • Coverage compliance of all processor-based subsystems
axiomatic safety critical assessment process ascap features
Axiomatic Safety-Critical Assessment Process (ASCAP) Features
  • ASCAP is FRA performance-based standard compliant
  • Monte Carlo large-scale train-centric simulation
  • Operates on a web-based parallel processing mini-super computer
  • ASCAP structure is Unified Modeling Language compliant
  • Calculates Events Passed at Danger based on a dynamic train movement model and probabilistic behavior of wayside devices and human-factors – dispatchers, train crews and maintenance-of-way workers
  • Events Passed at Danger are an automatic generation of fault trees
  • Calculates mishap-pairs: train-to-train collisions, etc. and crash-worthiness severity as societal cost based on history of accidents and/or real-time performance-based simulation
significant ascap models
  • Probabilistic device behavior:
  • Rule book compliance/non-compliance
  • A.I. blackboard outcomes
  • Human-factors safety behaviors and compliance
  • Train dynamic movement model – discrete & continuous
  • Accident severity societal cost
  • Events passed at danger
event passed at danger epad concept
Event Passed at Danger (EPAD) Concept



Train 2

Train 1



  • Train 1 crew sees red signal as green & proceeds
  • Train 1 has generated an EPAD
  • Simulation changes from discrete event to continuous
  • Based on train crew behavior(s) the trains may stop
  • Train 1 crew has violated the rule book compliance
mishap concept

Continuous Simulation

Discrete Event Simulation

Train B should have taken the siding

proposed china usa collaboration
Proposed – China/USA Collaboration
  • A China/USA university partnership is proposed that provides FRA compliant risk assessment for the major rail projects in China:
    • Duplicate a Center of Rail Safety-Critical Excellence in China for:
      • High Speed Rail
      • Maglev
      • Transit Railways
    • Technology transfer of Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) risk assessment compliant methodologies, tool sets and education to China
    • Technology transfer would take place with UVA implementing the risk assessment of a major China rail project with Chinese graduate students at UVA
    • Methodologies and tool sets would be supported via the web as graduate students return to China
    • Chinese university would have a seat on the UVA Advisory Board to provide technical direction oversight. Likewise, Chinese Center would have a technical Advisory Board with a UVA member