Reproductive Health and Preconception Care of HIV-Infected Women Development & Implementation of National Recommendations
Disclosure With support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention The findings and conclusions in this presentation are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Objectives • To briefly describe the importance of caring for the reproductive health of HIV-infected women in the US. • To describe the process of developing national-level recommendations to improve the reproductive health of HIV-infected women. • List selected recommendations made by the Expert Panel on Reproductive Health and Preconception Care of HIV-infected Women. • To discuss progress toward implementing these recommendations to date.
Preconception Care of HIV-infected Women (1) Reproductive health needs not being met Separation of GYN and HIV care Preconception counseling and care not being addressed pro-actively Reproductive health care often not a priority for patients or providers
Preconception Care of HIV-infected Women (2) With improved survival and health and decreased risk of MTCT, many HIV+ women are choosing to conceive Effective contraceptive is underused; unplanned pregnancies are common Women face barriers related to stigma, safe conception with serodiscordant partners, and other issues
Chain of Events Leading to an HIV-infected Child The proportion of women . . . Who are HIV-infected Who become pregnant Who do not seek prenatal care Who are not offered HIV testing Who refuse testing Who are not offered ARV prophylaxis Who refuse ARV prophylaxis Who do not complete ARV prophylaxis Whose infant does not receive ARV prophylaxis Whose child is infected despite prophylaxis Adapted from IOM, 1998
Steps to Reducing Perinatal HIV Transmission Primary HIV prevention in women Comprehensive preconception/interconception care Prevention of unintended pregnancy in HIV+ women Accessible, affordable, welcoming prenatal care Universal prenatal HIV testing, including 3rd trimester repeat testing in areas of high-incidence Re-offering testing to those who initially decline Offer ARV treatment/prophylaxis to all HIV-infected women Adherence support for ARVs Rapid test for women with undocumented HIV status in labor ARV prophylaxis for women identified in labor ARV prophylaxis of all HIV-exposed newborns Comprehensive services for mother and infant We’re working on it! FXB Center UMDNJ, 2002, 2009
Estimated number of births to women living with HIV infection, 2000-2006 2006 estimate (8,650 – 8900) is ~30% > 2000 estimate (6075 – 6422) Office of Inspector General (Fleming), 2002Whitmore, et al. CROI, 2009
Live Births Among HIV+ Women Before and After HAART AvailabilitySharma, et al. AJOG 2007 • Comparison of live birth rates 1994-1995 (pre-HAART era) and 2001-2002 (HAART era) in HIV+ and HIV- women 15-44 yrs • In HAART era 150% increase in live birth rate among HIV+ women vs. 5% increase among HIV- women
Clinicians Fail to Routinely Provide Reproductive Counseling to HIV-Infected Women in the US (Averitt Bridge et al. 2008) Women Living Positive Survey • Interviewed 700 HIV+ women • 31% were contemplating pregnancy or had been pregnant • 48% were not asked by their HIV provider if they wanted to have a child • Of women who had thought about pregnancy or who were pregnant • 41% had not discussed HIV treatment change in event of pregnancy • 29% said their HIV provider did not explain the effects of HIV medication on them or their baby
Contraceptive Use Among US Women with HIV(Massad et al. J Women’s Health 2007)
Cumulative Incidence of First Pregnancy in 174 Perinatally HIV-Infected Sexually Active Girls Age >13 Years, PACTG 219CBrogly SB et al. Am J Public Health 2007 Screen for pregnancy in HIV-infected Adolescents! By age 19 years, 24.2% of sexually active girls had been pregnant at least once (6 had 2nd pregnancy, 1 had 3rd)
Background of Recommendations Spring 2008 Key informant interviews Literature review Key topics, process, & invitees identifed July 2008 “Expert Panel” sponsored by CDC/FXB 32 participants – governmental, academic and community representatives
The Meeting • Presentations laid groundwork • Facilitated small group work • Development of national recommendations with action steps • Integrate RH and HIV care • Primary HIV prevention • Large group report back with discussion • “One Wish” • Buy-in for ongoing process
After the Meeting Recommendations prioritized High/low impact and resources Expert Panel ongoing planning calls Publication and dissemination of recommendations AIDS - Journal of the International AIDS Society APHA 2009 AIDS Alliance “Voices” 2010 ANAC 2008 & 2010
Policy Recommendations Integrate adult and perinatal US treatment guidelines on preconception care Organize talking-points about data needs and present to stakeholders in funding research Advocate to CMS for reimbursement of services Advocate for Ryan White to include additional funding for women Include Title X grantees to improve linkages Co-locate clinics Conduct Special Project of National Significance (SPNS) projects to demonstrate integration of Title X and Ryan White care providers and services Collaborate with ACOG on defining preconception care in context of HIV infection
Program/Services Recommendations Assemble and disseminate best practices that link Title X agencies and Ryan White agencies Add a HRSA quality indicator on preconception care Develop trainings for HIV providers that increase comfort and knowledge about HIV and pregnancy Hold joint trainings for HIV and Title X providers Advocate to the AETCs to increase their focus on women’s health Develop tools for busy HIV providers to streamline preconception care and counseling Create mentoring program for new HIV providers
Research/Data Recommendations Perform a “fishing expedition” of existing data Perform research that will address the following gaps in data # of HIV-infected women who deliver per year? # of HIV-infected women who get pregnant each year? How many of these pregnancies are repeat pregnancies? Conduct studies on the efficacy of hormonal contraception for HIV-infected women the effectiveness of reproductive health technologies for HIV-infected women on HAART Pre- exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for discordant couples
Progress on Recommendations (1) Integration of adult and perinatal guidelines Joined forces with like-minded advocates to write AIDS correspondence piece Joint training for family planning and HIV providers ACOG survey Perinatal HIV screening practices Routine HIV screening practices Useful preconception care tools
Progress on Recommendations (2) Publication and promotion of recommendations – include Title X and HIV experts Preconception care and counseling tool CDC Institute on perinatal prevention, including preconception care, at Ryan White All-Grantees meeting in 2010
Progress on Recommendations (3) • Preconception care incorporated into CDC’s national framework for perinatal elimination • Letter to Office of National AIDS Policy • Ongoing work of the perinatal elimination stakeholders group
Conclusions • Assuring the reproductive health for HIV-infected women in the US is a means to an end – the end being comprehensive care for women and progress toward the elimination of HIV-infection in children. • The assembly of experts and ongoing working groups are a mechanism to forward changes to both clinical care and HIV policy in the US.
Thank You To Dr. Jean Anderson for many of her slides for this presentation & To the members of the CDC/FXB Expert Panel