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Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays -- Origin and Propagation of UHECRs --. M.Teshima Max-Planck-Institut f ü r Physik, M ü nchen Erice Summer School July. 2004. Important Aspects of UHECRs. GZK mechanism Sources must be nearby Secondary Gamma rays, neutrinos

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Ultra high energy cosmic rays origin and propagation of uhecrs

Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays-- Origin and Propagation of UHECRs --

M.Teshima

Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München

Erice Summer School

July. 2004


Important aspects of uhecrs
Important Aspects of UHECRs

  • GZK mechanism

    • Sources must be nearby

    • Secondary Gamma rays, neutrinos

  • Limited candidates of accelerators in the Universe

    • AGNs, GRBs

    • Heavy relic particles in our galactic Halo

  • Rectilinear propagation

    • Clusters of events



Greisen zatsepin kuzmin gzk effect

pair production energy loss

-resonance

pion production energy loss

multi-pion production

pion production rate

Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) effect





Energy loss time of nuclei yamamoto et al 2003
Energy loss time of nucleiYamamoto et al. 2003



Gzk effect
GZK effect

  • Energy Spectrum of cosmic rays are modified; suppression above 4x1019eV

  • Secondary particles

    • πo 2γ  cascade

      • γ; pair creation

      • e; Inverse compton, synchrotron

    • π± ν

  • Generally, proton supply the energy to neutrino and gammas





Ultra high energy cosmic rays origin and propagation of uhecrs

Optimistic Z-burst model (Only neutrino produced at sources) by G.Sigl and D.Semikos





Candidates for ehe c r accelerator
Candidates for EHE C.R. accelerator

A.G.N.

Pulsar

SNR

GRB

Radio Galaxy Lobe


Ultra high energy cosmic rays origin and propagation of uhecrs

Matter and galaxies within 93Mpc

By A.Kravtsov


Cosmic ray energy spectrum from grbs 10 100 by e waxman
Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrumfrom GRBs(10~100) by E.Waxman


Cosmic ray propagation in galactic disk and inter gal
Cosmic Ray Propagation inGalactic Disk and Inter Gal.


Arrival direction distribution 4x10 19 ev zenith angle 50deg
Arrival Direction Distribution >4x1019eVzenith angle <50deg.

  • Isotropic in large scale  Extra-Galactic

  • But, Clusters in small scale (Δθ<2.5deg)

    • 1triplet and 6 doublets (2.0 doublets are expected from random)

    • One doublet  triplet(>3.9x1019eV) and a new doublet(<2.6deg)


Expected auto correlation yoshiguchi et al 2004
Expected Auto correlationYoshiguchi et al. 2004

Number density of sources

~10-5 Mpc-3


Summary origin of uhecrs
Summary; origin of UHECRs

  • UHECRs  Diffuse γ, UHE neutrinos

  • Fe; galactic origin or neaby galaxies

    • most economical

    • can not explain AGASA clusters

  • P; Over density of nearby sources or very hard energy spectrum, GRBs, AGNs

  • Super Heavy Relics in our Halo

    • we should see strong anisotropy

  • Neutrino with large cross section


Ultra high energy cosmic rays next generation experiments mainly about euso

Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays-- Next generation experiments,mainly about EUSO --

M.Teshima

Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München

Erice Summer School

July. 2004



Auger project
Auger Project

Hybrid measurement

1500 water tanks

3 Air fluorescence stations

Aperture ~ X30 AGASA


Ultra high energy cosmic rays origin and propagation of uhecrs

Nature 419, 2002

See the presentation by H.Klages



Ultra high energy cosmic rays origin and propagation of uhecrs

TA Detector Configuration

Millard County

Utah/USA

~600 Scintillators

(1.2 km spacing)

AGASA x 9

3 x Fluorescence Stations

AGASA x 4

Low Energy Hybrid

Extension


Ultra high energy cosmic rays origin and propagation of uhecrs

TA Scintillator Development

proto: 50 cm x 50 cm, 1cm thick

Wave Length Shifter Fiber readout

50 modules used in L3 for 2.5 years.

cutting 1.5 mm deep groove

WLS: BCF-91A

( 1 mm Φ )

Final: 3 m2 by 2 PMT readout.


Ultra high energy cosmic rays origin and propagation of uhecrs

Shower Image

Telescope:3mΦSpherical Mirror

TA Telescope Development

Electronics:

100 ns 14 bit AD conv.

Signal recognition

by FPGA

Imaging Camera:16X16 PMT Array


Euso extreme universe space observatory x300 x3000 agasa
EUSOExtreme Universe Space Observatory x300, x3000 AGASA


Euso concept

Large Distance and Large F.O.V.  Large Aperture

~6x105 km2 sr

Good Cosmic Ray detector

3000 times sensitive to C.R. bursts

1500 Giga-ton atmosphere

Good neutrino detector

All Sky coverage

North and south skys are covered uniformly.  sensitive to large scale anisotropy

Complementary to the observation from the ground

Different energy scale and systematics

Shower Geometry is well defined

Constant distance from detector

EUSO Concept


Ultra high energy cosmic rays origin and propagation of uhecrs

Effective Area

~200,000km2

1/2 Deutschland

(360,000km2)



Shower track image m c simulation
Shower Track Image(M.C. Simulation)

1020eV shower

zenith angle =60 degree

Total signal ~ 700p.e.


Atmospheric transmission better than ground based air fluorescence detector

Small effect by Mie scattering

Worst ~20%

Cloud go down 2~3km altitude in the night

Smaller Absorption in absolute value

~ x0.3

Ground based x0.1~0.01

Atmospheric Transmissionbetter than ground based air fluorescence detector


Detector element
Detector Element

Electronics

Focal Surface

Support Structure

Focal Surface

Fresnel Lens 2

Entrance

pupil

Fresnel Lens 1


Euso optics
Euso Optics

Wide Angle and High Resolution

F.O.V. +-30°δθ~0.1°


Ultra high energy cosmic rays origin and propagation of uhecrs

10 particle/0.1 decade EUSO

10 particle by AGASA/HiRes

1 particle/0.1 decade EUSO

1 particle by AGASA/HiRes


Focal surface detector baseline design
Focal Surface DetectorBaseline design


Hamamatsu mapmt
Hamamatsu MAPMT

New Development by Riken Group

Higher Photon Collection efficiency

R8900-M16/M25 (45%  85%)

R7600-M64

Flat Panel MAPMT

Hamamatsu H8500






Neutrino detection capability
Neutrino Detection capability

Just using observables

No need for Cherenkov ref.

Zenith Angle vs. Xmax

Zenith Angle vs. Shower Time width

Neutrino Showers

Proton Showers

Neutrino domain


Ultra high energy cosmic rays origin and propagation of uhecrs

Neutrino sensitivity (downward neutrino)

Auger

EUSO

Sensitivity

1 events/decade/year

EUSO has 10 times larger

Aperture than Auger above

GZK energy

EUSO is sensitive Z-Burst,

Top Down Models and

highGZK flux.


Gamma ray identification geomagnetic cascade

1020eV

photon

h~5000km

Pair Electrons

Synchrotron

Photons

~ 100 x

1018eV

Pair Production prob.

Energy & Direction

Gamma Ray IdentificationGeomagneticCascade

Xmax distribution


New projects for uhecrs1
New Projects for UHECRs

Bright Future ofUHECR observation!!


Euso in iss
EUSO in ISS

Cosmic Ray observations

Accommodation in ISS