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CSC 376: Software Project IS 394: Information Systems Project. Lecture 8b Chaos! Instructor: Jane Huang. Today’s Schedule Test presentations Discuss projects Evaluate progress Chaos report. Chaos Report Standish Research Group Report.
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CSC 376: Software ProjectIS 394: Information Systems Project Lecture 8b Chaos! Instructor: Jane Huang
Today’s Schedule • Test presentations • Discuss projectsEvaluate progress • Chaos report
Chaos Report Standish Research Group Report • "The Roman bridges of antiquity were very inefficient structures. By modern standards, they used too much stone, and as a result, far too much labor to build. Over the years we have learned to build bridges more efficiently, using fewer materials and less labor to perform the same task.“ Tom Clancy (The Sum of All Fears) • Bridges are normally built on-time, on-budget, and do not fall down • Software “never” comes in on-time or on-budget. It always breaks down. • Bridge building did not always have such a stellar record – 3,000 years of experience, failures investigated & reported. • Computer industry failures are covered up, ignored, and/or rationalized. – mistakes repeated over and over again. Project Success: Type 1. The project is completed on-time and on-budget, with all features and functions as initially specified. (2000: 28%) Project Challenged: Type 2. The project is completed and operational but over-budget, over the time estimate, and offers fewer features and functions than originally specified. (2000: 49%) Project Impaired: Type 3. The project is canceled at some point during the development cycle. (2000: 23%) (Are ALL impaired projects failures???)
2000Project Success Factors % of Responses 1. Executive Support 18%2. User Involvement 16%3. Experienced Project Manager 14%4. Clear business objectives 12% 5. Minimized scope 10%6. Standard software infrastructure 8%7. Firm basic requirements 6%8. Formal methodology 6%9. Reliable estimates 5%10. Other 5% 1994Project Challenged Factors % of Responses 1. Lack of User Input 12.8%2. Incomplete Requirements & Specifications 12.3%3. Changing Requirements & Specifications 11.8%4. Lack of Executive Support 7.5%5. Technology Incompetence 7.0%6. Lack of Resources 6.4%7. Unrealistic Expectations 5.9%8. Unclear Objectives 5.3%9. Unrealistic Time Frames 4.3%10. New Technology 3.7% Other 23.0% Project managers were asked to identify the most influential factors in both successful and challenged projects. Materials taken from: http://standishgroup.com
Case-Studies – conducted by the Standish Research Group California DMV1987-1993 project to revitalize their drivers license and registration application process. By 1993, after $45 million the project was cancelled.(No monetary payback, no IT buy in) American Airlines1994, a $165 million car rental and hotel reservation system (CONFIRM) involving American Airlines, Budget Rent-A-Car, Marriott Corp. and Hilton Hotels collapsed in chaos. (Too many cooks!) Hyatt HotelsConfirmation System - dial from a cellular airplane telephone at 35,000 feet, check into your Hyatt hotel room, schedule the courtesy bus to pick you up, and have your keys waiting for you at the express desk – all for under $15 million. Banco ItamaratiA year after a strategic redirection, Banco Itamarati, a privately-held Brazilian bank, produced an annual net profit growth of 51% and moved from 47th to 15th place in the Brazilian banking industry. Technology was a key component of their business strategy. Materials taken from: http://standishgroup.com
Case-Study - Results Success Points Criteria California DMV American Airlines Hyatt Hotels Banco Itamarati 1. User Involvement 19 No (0) No (0) Yes (19) Yes (19) 2. Exec Mgmt Support 16 No (0) Yes (16) Yes (16) Yes (16) 3. Clear Requirements 15 No (0) No (0) Yes (15) No (0) 4. Proper Planning 11 No (0) No (0) Yes (11) Yes (11) 5. Realistic Expectations 10 Yes (10) Yes (10) Yes (10) Yes (10) 6. Small Proj. Milestones 9 No (0) No (0) Yes (9) Yes (9) 7. Competent Staff 8 No (0) No (0) Yes (8) Yes (8) 8. Ownership 6 No (0) No (0) Yes (6) Yes (6) 9. Clear vision & Obj. 3 No (0) No (0) Yes (3) Yes (3) 10. Hard-Work / Focused 3 No (0) Yes (3) Yes (3) Yes (3) TOTAL: 10 29100 85 Materials taken from: http://standishgroup.com
Does process make a difference? • Creates reproducible steps and procedures. • Lessons learned can be incorporated into active projects. • Process encourages evaluative decision points (go/no go points) • CHAOS research shows that 46% of successful projects use a formal project management methodology, compared to 30% of challenged and failed projects. (16% ↑) • Smaller process can be applied to solve specific problems.
Elements of a Methodology Process Milestones Quality Activities Teams Products Techniques Personality Standards Tools Team Values Skills Roles Alistair Cockburn – Agile Software Development