Leveled Literacy Intervention Irene Fountas & Gay Su Pinnell . Pat Erickson EDDC 864 Programs in Literacy 1. Program Authors. Irene Fountas (Lesley University) Gay Su Pinnell (Ohio State)
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Programs in Literacy 1
Irene Fountas (Lesley University)
Gay Su Pinnell (Ohio State)
Both have written extensively - Articles, Books, Interviews on Reading beginning in 1975 with “Language in Primary Classrooms” and continuing up to present date with approximately 20 published articles between them.
Best known as authors of Guided Reading (1996).
“Good first teaching is the foundation of education and the right of every child. “
Pinnell - Professor at Ohio State: National Data Collection Site for Reading Recovery
Reading Recovery Certified Teacher (member of one of the first cohorts in US to go through training) Pinnellbegan writing about RR in 1985 with “Helping Teachers Help Children at Risk: Insights from the Reading Recovery Program”
written extensively about RR (*More about RR Later)
Based on Guided Reading.
allows children to develop as individual readers within the context of a small group
texts are matched to children’s reading ability instructional level reading every day, independent level reading every day (Fountas & Pinnell, 1999). systematic instruction in phonemic awareness (National Institute of Child Health & Human Development, 2001a, Armbruster, Lehr, & Osborn, 2001)
systematic instruction in phonics(Clay, 2001)
daily opportunities to increase fluency through oral rereading of texts
daily opportunity to read new texts with teacher support(Armbruster, Lehr & Osborn, 2001)
explicit instruction on comprehension (discussion, graphic organizers, strategy instruction)
opportunities for writing(National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2001a)
opportunities to learn a core of high frequency words
expand vocabulary and develop oral language(Vygotsky, 1998, Beck, McKeown, & Kulcan, 2002, Lindfors, 1999, Moats, 2001)
highly motivating for children and teachers(NRP, Au, 1997, Lyons, 2003)
Direct, practical link to classroom instruction(Armbruster, Lehr, & Osborn, 2001)
Facilitates a home-school connection
Leveled books are a key component in helping children become competent readers. Each LLI system includes a collection of leveled books to provide support and a small amount of challenge so the reader can learn on the text and make small steps toward grade-level goals.
All systems have organized lessons around the following quantities of leveled books:
Orange System: Levels A through C – 70 Titles ($1250.00)
Green System: Levels A through J – 110 Titles ($2500.00)
Blue System: Levels C through N – 120 Titles ($2500.00)
Red System: Levels L through Q – 144 Titles ($4500.00)
Began in 1976 as a research project in New Zealand (Marie Clay)
National Education Program in NZ in 1983
Came to US in 1984
Reading Recovery – differentiated individual instruction for struggling readers.
Daily instruction is based on student reading (what students know and what they need to know)
Marie Clay – began teaching in 1949
1st published reading research in 1967
5 day intervention program: 30 minutes/day
Short term – 12 to 20 weeks
1st10 Lessons In RR -Roaming around the known
RR Leveled Books
RR – 5 part Lesson Structure
Assessments – Observation Survey and Running Records
Leveled Literacy Intervention System (LLI)
Short term intervention– twelve to twenty weeks
small-group (recommended for 3 students but can go up to six students)
supplementary intervention - not substitute
Intensive support for lowest achieving children who struggle with reading and writing
Goal – to bring children quickly up to grade-level
Also supports ELL students
Leveled Literacy Intervention is a K–8+ intervention systemLLI Orange System, Kindergarten (Levels A – C) 2008
LLI Green System, Grade 1 (Levels A – J) 2008
LLI Blue System, Grade 2 (Levels C – N) 2008
LLI Red System, Grade 3 (Levels L – Q) 2013
Three new systems are in development: LLI Gold System, Grade 4 (Levels O–T) LLI Purple System, Grade 5 (Levels R–W) LLI Teal System, Grades 6-8 (Levels U–Z)
70 to 140 Leveled Books (6 copies of each)
10 Getting Started Lap Books
Take Home Books(6 copies each)
Lesson Guide, Volume 1 & 2
Prompting Guide 1
When Readers Struggle: Teaching That Works
My Writing Book(108 books)
Take Home Bags(18 bags, 6 of each color)
Lesson Folders(110 folders)
Student Folders(18 folders)
Technology Package (includes Lesson Resource CD-ROM, Data Management System CD-ROM, Professional Development DVD, Tutorial DVD)
Lesson Resources CD - printable lesson forms, charts, books, games, letter and picture cards, recording forms, parent letters
Data Management CD – import data, track and print reports, progress monitoring
Professional Development DVD – Program Components, Assessment, Teaching, Sample LLI Lessons
Tutorial DVD – Coding Oral Reading, Scoring and Analyzing Oral Reading Behaviors
Alternating Day Lesson Structure(Odd and Even Day)
30 minute lessons – fast pace with focus on comprehension
Rereading Books that are familiar to students - Odd and Even Day
Assessment – Running Record - Even Day
Phonics/Word Work – systematic phonics– Odd and Even Day
New Book – guided reading - Odd and Even Day
Letter/Word Work - Early Writing skills – Odd Day
Benchmark Assessment™ , purchased separately, isused to identify students for intervention and forming appropriate groups. Initial assessment at K and 1 are similar to Clay’s Observation survey.
Initial assessment at grades 1, 2, &3 contain running records, fluency, retelling and comprehension.
Based on the F&P Text Level Gradient™. A–Z, which is correlated to grade level.
Program Assessments (even Day) include running records for accuracy and analysis, fluency rubric, retelling and comprehension.
Difficult to meet individual needs in group setting for 30 minutes
Comprehension instruction is mostly low level
View of reading is in mechanics
Not a lot of choice
Armbruster, B. B., Lehr, F., & Osborn, J. (2001). Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read: Kindergarten through Grade 1. Jessup, MD: National Institute for Literacy.
Au, K. H. (1997). Ownership, literacy achievement, and students of diverse cultural backgrounds. In J.T. Guthrie & A.Wigfield(Eds.), Reading engagement: Motivating readers through integrated instruction (pp. 18–182). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Beck, I.L. & McKeown, M.G. (1991). Conditions of vocabulary acquisition. In R. Barr, M. Kamil, & P.D. Pearson (Eds.).Handbook of reading research (Vol. 2, pp. 789–814). New York: Longman.
Clay, M.M. (2001). Change Over Time in Children’s Literacy Development.
Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Goldenberg, C. N. (1994). Promoting early literacy development among Spanish-
speaking children:Lessonsfrom two studies. In E.H. Hiebert& B.M. Taylor
(Eds.), Getting Ready Right from the Start: Effective Early Literacy Interventions.Needham, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Harrison, L., Grehan, A., Ross, S., Dexter, E., & Inan, F. (2008). Leveled Literacy Intervention: Year 1 Evaluation. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York.
Hiebert, E. H. & B. M. Taylor (1994). Early literacy interventions: Answers and issues. In E.H. Hiebert& B.M. Taylor (Eds.),Getting Ready Right from the Start:
Effective Early Literacy Interventions. Needham, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Juel, C. (1998). Learning to read and write: A longitudinal study of 54 children from first
through fourth grades. Journal ofEducationalPsychology, 80, 437–447.
Lindfors, J. (1999). Children’s Inquiry: Using Language to Make Sense of the World. New York: Teachers College Press.
Fountas, I. C. & Pinnell, G.S. (2003). Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency: Thinking,
Talking, and Writing About Reading, K–8. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann,
Fountas, I. C. & Pinnell, G.S. (2005). Leveled Books, K–8: Matching Texts to Readers for Effective Teaching. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Pinnell, G.S. & Fountas, I. C. (1998). Word Matters: Teaching Phonics and Spelling in the Reading/Writing Classroom.Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Lyons, C. (2003). Teaching struggling readers: How to use brain-based research to maximize learning. Portsmouth, NH:Heinemann.
Moats, L.C. (2001). Overcoming the language gap. American Educator, 25, (5), 8–9.
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (2001a). Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching Children to Read: An Evidence-Based Assessment of the Scientific Research Literature on Reading and Its Implications. . . l 6 k. . .for Reading Instruction. Reports of the Subgroups. Washington, D.C.: National Institutes of Health.
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (2001b). Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching Children to Read: An Evidence-Based Assessment of the Scientific Research Literacy on Reading and its Implications for Reading Instruction. Summary. Washington, D.C.: National Institutes of Health.
Schmidt, M.C., Askew, B.J., Fountas, I.C., Lyons, C.A. & Pinnell, G.S. (2005). Changing Futures: The Influence of Reading Recovery in the United States. Worthington, OH: Reading Recovery Council of North America.
Snow, C.E., Burns, M.S., & Griffin, P. (1998). Preventing Reading Difficulties in Y oungChildren. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
Stanovich, K.E. (1986). Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of
individual differences in the acquisition of literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, 21, 360–406.
Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.