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Leveled Literacy Intervention Irene Fountas & Gay Su Pinnell . Pat Erickson EDDC 864 Programs in Literacy 1. Program Authors. Irene Fountas (Lesley University) Gay Su Pinnell (Ohio State)

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Leveled literacy intervention irene fountas gay su pinnell

Leveled Literacy InterventionIreneFountas & Gay Su Pinnell

Pat Erickson

EDDC 864

Programs in Literacy 1

Program authors
Program Authors

Irene Fountas (Lesley University)

Gay Su Pinnell (Ohio State)

Both have written extensively - Articles, Books, Interviews on Reading beginning in 1975 with “Language in Primary Classrooms” and continuing up to present date with approximately 20 published articles between them.

Best known as authors of Guided Reading (1996).

“Good first teaching is the foundation of education and the right of every child. “

Program authors continued
Program Authors Continued

Pinnell - Professor at Ohio State: National Data Collection Site for Reading Recovery

Reading Recovery Certified Teacher (member of one of the first cohorts in US to go through training) Pinnellbegan writing about RR in 1985 with “Helping Teachers Help Children at Risk: Insights from the Reading Recovery Program”

written extensively about RR (*More about RR Later)

Lli philosophy research base
LLI Philosophy & Research Base

Based on Guided Reading.

allows children to develop as individual readers within the context of a small group

texts are matched to children’s reading ability instructional level reading every day, independent level reading every day (Fountas & Pinnell, 1999). systematic instruction in phonemic awareness (National Institute of Child Health & Human Development, 2001a, Armbruster, Lehr, & Osborn, 2001)

systematic instruction in phonics(Clay, 2001)

daily opportunities to increase fluency through oral rereading of texts

daily opportunity to read new texts with teacher support(Armbruster, Lehr & Osborn, 2001)

Lli philosophy continued
LLI Philosophy Continued

explicit instruction on comprehension (discussion, graphic organizers, strategy instruction)

opportunities for writing(National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2001a)

opportunities to learn a core of high frequency words

expand vocabulary and develop oral language(Vygotsky, 1998, Beck, McKeown, & Kulcan, 2002, Lindfors, 1999, Moats, 2001)

highly motivating for children and teachers(NRP, Au, 1997, Lyons, 2003)

Direct, practical link to classroom instruction(Armbruster, Lehr, & Osborn, 2001)

Facilitates a home-school connection

Lli philosophy continued1
LLI Philosophy Continued

Leveled books are a key component in helping children become competent readers. Each LLI system includes a collection of leveled books to provide support and a small amount of challenge so the reader can learn on the text and make small steps toward grade-level goals.

All systems have organized lessons around the following quantities of leveled books:

Orange System: Levels A through C – 70 Titles ($1250.00)

Green System: Levels A through J – 110 Titles ($2500.00)

Blue System: Levels C through N – 120 Titles ($2500.00)

Red System: Levels L through Q – 144 Titles ($4500.00)

Back to reading recovery
Back To Reading Recovery

Began in 1976 as a research project in New Zealand (Marie Clay)

National Education Program in NZ in 1983

Came to US in 1984

Reading Recovery – differentiated individual instruction for struggling readers.

Daily instruction is based on student reading (what students know and what they need to know)

Marie Clay – began teaching in 1949

1st published reading research in 1967

Comparison of leveled literacy intervention to reading recovery
Comparison of Leveled Literacy Intervention to Reading Recovery


5 day intervention program: 30 minutes/day

Intensive support

Short term – 12 to 20 weeks

1 student

1st10 Lessons In RR -Roaming around the known

RR Leveled Books

RR – 5 part Lesson Structure

Assessments – Observation Survey and Running Records

1st grade


  • 3 to 5 day intervention program: 30 minutes/day

  • Intensive support

  • Short Term – 12 to 20 weeks

  • 1 to 6 students (recommended for 3 students)

  • 1st10 Lessons in LLI – Getting to Know Students

  • LLI Leveled Books - F&P

  • LLI - 4 part Lesson Structure

  • Assessments – Benchmark Assessment - Running Records, Fluency & Retelling

  • K - 8

Leveled literacy intervention nature of the program
Leveled Literacy Intervention Recovery Nature of the Program

Leveled Literacy Intervention System (LLI)

Short term intervention– twelve to twenty weeks

small-group (recommended for 3 students but can go up to six students)

supplementary intervention - not substitute

Intensive support for lowest achieving children who struggle with reading and writing

Goal – to bring children quickly up to grade-level

Also supports ELL students

Lli kits
LLI Kits Recovery

Leveled Literacy Intervention is a K–8+ intervention systemLLI Orange System, Kindergarten (Levels A – C) 2008

LLI Green System, Grade 1 (Levels A – J) 2008

LLI Blue System, Grade 2 (Levels C – N) 2008

LLI Red System, Grade 3 (Levels L – Q) 2013

Three new systems are in development: LLI Gold System, Grade 4 (Levels O–T) LLI Purple System, Grade 5 (Levels R–W) LLI Teal System, Grades 6-8 (Levels U–Z)

Program components
Program Components Recovery

70 to 140 Leveled Books (6 copies of each)

10 Getting Started Lap Books

Take Home Books(6 copies each)

Program Guide

Lesson Guide, Volume 1 & 2

Prompting Guide 1

When Readers Struggle: Teaching That Works

Program components continued
Program Components Continued Recovery

My Writing Book(108 books)

Take Home Bags(18 bags, 6 of each color)

Lesson Folders(110 folders)

Student Folders(18 folders)

Technology Package (includes Lesson Resource CD-ROM, Data Management System CD-ROM, Professional Development DVD, Tutorial DVD)

F&P Calculator/Stopwatch

Technology Recovery

Lesson Resources CD - printable lesson forms, charts, books, games, letter and picture cards, recording forms, parent letters

Data Management CD – import data, track and print reports, progress monitoring

Professional Development DVD – Program Components, Assessment, Teaching, Sample LLI Lessons

Tutorial DVD – Coding Oral Reading, Scoring and Analyzing Oral Reading Behaviors

Lesson framework
Lesson Framework Recovery

Alternating Day Lesson Structure(Odd and Even Day)

30 minute lessons – fast pace with focus on comprehension

Rereading Books that are familiar to students - Odd and Even Day

Assessment – Running Record - Even Day

Phonics/Word Work – systematic phonics– Odd and Even Day

New Book – guided reading - Odd and Even Day

Letter/Word Work - Early Writing skills – Odd Day

Assessments Recovery

Benchmark Assessment™ , purchased separately, isused to identify students for intervention and forming appropriate groups. Initial assessment at K and 1 are similar to Clay’s Observation survey.

Initial assessment at grades 1, 2, &3 contain running records, fluency, retelling and comprehension.

Based on the F&P Text Level Gradient™. A–Z, which is correlated to grade level.

Program Assessments (even Day) include running records for accuracy and analysis, fluency rubric, retelling and comprehension.

Lli and our philosophical framework
LLI and Our Philosophical Framework Recovery


Difficult to meet individual needs in group setting for 30 minutes

Comprehension instruction is mostly low level

View of reading is in mechanics

Not a lot of choice

scripted program


  • Based on Reading Recovery

  • Skill sets - Systematic Phonics, fluency, word rec., text structure

  • Less expensive than Reading Recovery as it is small group/individual

  • Recognizes reciprocity of reading/writing

  • Nice collection of Leveled books

  • Technology Package

  • Graphic organizers

References Recovery

Armbruster, B. B., Lehr, F., & Osborn, J. (2001). Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read: Kindergarten through Grade 1. Jessup, MD: National Institute for Literacy.

Au, K. H. (1997). Ownership, literacy achievement, and students of diverse cultural backgrounds. In J.T. Guthrie & A.Wigfield(Eds.), Reading engagement: Motivating readers through integrated instruction (pp. 18–182). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Beck, I.L. & McKeown, M.G. (1991). Conditions of vocabulary acquisition. In R. Barr, M. Kamil, & P.D. Pearson (Eds.).Handbook of reading research (Vol. 2, pp. 789–814). New York: Longman.

References continued
References Continued Recovery

Clay, M.M. (2001). Change Over Time in Children’s Literacy Development.

Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Goldenberg, C. N. (1994). Promoting early literacy development among Spanish-

speaking children:Lessonsfrom two studies. In E.H. Hiebert& B.M. Taylor

(Eds.), Getting Ready Right from the Start: Effective Early Literacy Interventions.Needham, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Harrison, L., Grehan, A., Ross, S., Dexter, E., & Inan, F. (2008). Leveled Literacy Intervention: Year 1 Evaluation. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York.

Hiebert, E. H. & B. M. Taylor (1994). Early literacy interventions: Answers and issues. In E.H. Hiebert& B.M. Taylor (Eds.),Getting Ready Right from the Start:

Effective Early Literacy Interventions. Needham, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

References continued1
References Continued Recovery

Juel, C. (1998). Learning to read and write: A longitudinal study of 54 children from first

through fourth grades. Journal ofEducationalPsychology, 80, 437–447.

Lindfors, J. (1999). Children’s Inquiry: Using Language to Make Sense of the World. New York: Teachers College Press.

Fountas, I. C. & Pinnell, G.S. (2003). Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency: Thinking,

Talking, and Writing About Reading, K–8. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann,

Fountas, I. C. & Pinnell, G.S. (2005). Leveled Books, K–8: Matching Texts to Readers for Effective Teaching. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Pinnell, G.S. & Fountas, I. C. (1998). Word Matters: Teaching Phonics and Spelling in the Reading/Writing Classroom.Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Lyons, C. (2003). Teaching struggling readers: How to use brain-based research to maximize learning. Portsmouth, NH:Heinemann.

Moats, L.C. (2001). Overcoming the language gap. American Educator, 25, (5), 8–9.

References continued2
References Continued Recovery

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (2001a). Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching Children to Read: An Evidence-Based Assessment of the Scientific Research Literature on Reading and Its Implications. . . l 6 k. . .for Reading Instruction. Reports of the Subgroups. Washington, D.C.: National Institutes of Health.

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (2001b). Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching Children to Read: An Evidence-Based Assessment of the Scientific Research Literacy on Reading and its Implications for Reading Instruction. Summary. Washington, D.C.: National Institutes of Health.

Schmidt, M.C., Askew, B.J., Fountas, I.C., Lyons, C.A. & Pinnell, G.S. (2005). Changing Futures: The Influence of Reading Recovery in the United States. Worthington, OH: Reading Recovery Council of North America.

References continued3
References Continued Recovery

Snow, C.E., Burns, M.S., & Griffin, P. (1998). Preventing Reading Difficulties in Y oungChildren. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Stanovich, K.E. (1986). Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of

individual differences in the acquisition of literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, 21, 360–406.

Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Thank you
Thank You! Recovery