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Cement Integrity for Life of the Well

Cement Integrity for Life of the Well

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Cement Integrity for Life of the Well

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  1. Cement Integrity for Life of the Well Perry Beaudoin Les Hendricks Halliburton Energy Services

  2. Why be concerned about Cement Integrity for the life of the well? • Pressure on the annulus side after the well has been cemented and put on production • Annular Gas Flows • Premature water production • Casing collapse

  3. Remedial Options Due to Bond Failure • Monitor document and produce

  4. Remedial Options Due to Bond Failure • Monitor document and produce • Squeeze cement

  5. Remedial Options Due to Bond Failure • Monitor document and produce • Squeeze cement • Abandon the Well

  6. Processes Inducing Changes in Cement Sheath • The Stresses of a Cement Jobs Life • Mechanical shocks from pipe tripping • Expansion of the casing and compression of the cement during pressure testing • Expansion and contraction of the pipe due to cycles in production pressure and temperature • Formation movement

  7. Large Scale Stress TestingConventional Cement • 5 1/2” pipe cemented inside 7 5/8” casing • Inner pipe pressured in stages until cement failure was indicated at 31 Mpa

  8. Conventional Cement • Cement became brittle • Radial cracks formed • Cement bond failed creating a microannulus

  9. Foam Cement is Ductile • No radial cracks • Only slight debonding • Foamed cement deformed and absorbed the expansive energy without failure due to its elastic nature

  10. Foam Cement Foam Cement is a “system” containing cement, additives, foam surfactant, a gas (usually nitrogen), and water.

  11. Foam Cement

  12. Lightweight Excellent strength- to-density ratio Improved mud removal Gas migration preventative Expands (compressible) Ductile Stable to crossflows Insulates Stable at high temperatures Flexible system Low permeability Benefits of Foam Cement

  13. Fluid Loss Gas Entry Gas Migration Prevention FlowThrough Unset Cement • Overbalance pressure is lost • Fluid loss (volume) to lower pressure zone • Gas enters wellbore and percolates up annulus

  14. Cement Fluid Cement Sets Cement Hardens Cement Gels Overbalance Pressure Formation Gas Pressure Hydrostatic Pressure Time Hydrostatic Pressure Loss

  15. Foam Cement Cement Fluid Cement Sets Cement Hardens Cement Gels Overbalance Pressure Formation Gas Pressure Hydrostatic Pressure Time

  16. Equipment Required Cement Unit Injection Unit Nitrogen Unit

  17. Summary • Optimum production of hydrocarbons is linked to integrity of cement sheath.

  18. Summary • Life of the Well Cement process has been successfully applied in N.E. British Columbia in over 200 wells to provide superior cement integrity.

  19. Summary • Weak Zone / Loss Circulation • Lightweight foam cement lowered the hydrostatic of cement column.