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  1. Labor Movement

  2. The National Labor Union • 1866 • founded by William Sylvis • called for 8 hour work day • 1872, formed Labor Reform Party • 1873, depression hits = union dissolved

  3. Great Railroad Strike, 1877 • Panic of 1873 • RR decrease wages 10% • Spontaneous Strikes began across nation • Governors call in militia = violence • 18 people killed in Penn. • All trains shut down • Over 100 people killed • First incidence of violence in labor movement

  4. Molly Maguires • Irish Miners in Pennsylvania • secret organization • committed acts of sabotage & murder • infiltrated by Pinkertons • 10 men convicted of murder & hanged • Mollies Defeated, mining conditions worsen

  5. Knights of Labor • founded in 1878 • by Terrence V. Powderly • membership open to all workers • skilled & unskilled • men & women • all races, religions, & ethnic groups

  6. Goals of Knights • 8 hour day • end to child labor • end to convict labor • equal pay for women & minorities • safety codes for workplace • nationalization of RR & telegraph

  7. Haymarket Square, 1886 • May Day demonstration for 8 hour day • Strike at McCormick reaper factory, Chicago • May 4th rally in Haymarket Square • 3000 attend

  8. Bomb thrown--7 policemen dead • Police fire on crowd—12 dead • Newspapers blame unions • 8 anarchist arrested & charge with instigation • 4 hanged, 1 suicide, 3 jailed then aquitted • Destroyed Knights of Labor

  9. United Mine Workers • founded by John L Lewis • Goals: • 8 hour day • end child labor in mines • safety codes for mines • health care for workers with “Black Lung”

  10. American Railway Union • founded by Eugene Debs, 1893 • sought to unite all workers on Railroads • wanted shorter hours & better wages • Debs jailed during Pullman Strike

  11. IWW: IndustrialWorkers of the World • founded in 1905 • lead by Big Bill Haywood • also Joe Hill & Mary Harris “Mother” Jones revolutionaries • Lawrence Textile Mill Strike • “Bread & Roses”

  12. AFL: American Federation of Labor • founded 1881 • by Samuel Gompers • full-time union officials to... • organize, negotiate, control strikes • skilled workers only • no women or minorities