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Art 1010: Week #9 Architecture

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  1. Art 1010: Week #9 Architecture March 25th, 2009 Wednesdays 6:30 - 9:15 p.m. Bryce Walker

  2. Things to discuss today • Exam #2 • Hand back Quiz #4 • Art News? • Architecture • Video ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker

  3. Architecture • Items to be covered: • Extended History of Architecture • Architecture Timeline • Architecture Vocabulary ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker

  4. Architecture • Georgian • Neoclassic/Federalist/Idealist • Greek Revival • Victorian • Arts & Crafts Movement • Art Nouveau • Beaux Arts • Neo-Gothic • Art Deco • 20th Century Trends ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker • Time period styles • Architecture in Prehistorical times • Ancient Egypt • Ancient Greece • Early Christian & Medieval • Romanesque • Gothic • Reniassance • Baroque • Rococo • American Colonial 4

  5. Goals and Objectives • Learn the history of architecture up to today • Learn how to develop an art timeline • Learn the vocabulary for architecture • Watch video • Compare Howard Roark (fictional) to Frank Lloyd Wright (real)? • Quiz #5 next class ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker

  6. Architecture in Prehistoric Times Stonehenge, 2000 BCE ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker Before recorded history, humans constructed stone circles, megaliths, and other structures. Stonehenge is made from 150 huge rocks set in a circular pattern on the Salisbury Plain in southern England. Most of Stonehenge was built in about 2000 BCE. 6

  7. Ancient Egypt 3,050 BC to 900 BC In ancient Egypt, powerful rulers constructed monumental pyramids, temples, and shrines. The Great Pyramid of Giza, also called Khufu's Pyramid or the Pyramid of Khufu, and Pyramid of Cheops, is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis. It is believed the pyramid was built as a tomb for Fourth dynasty Egyptian King Khufu (Cheops in Greek) and constructed over a 20 year period concluding around 2560 BC. The Great Pyramid was the tallest man-made structure in the world for over 3,800 years ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker

  8. Ancient Greece Classical 850 BC to 476 AD From the rise of ancient Greece until the fall of the Roman empire, great buildings were constructed according to precise rules. The Parthenon sets on top of the Acropolis in Athens, Greece. This landmark example of Classical architecture was a finalist in the campaign to choose the New 7 Wonders of the World. ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker

  9. Early Christian & Medieval 373 to 500 AD. European architecture moved from the rectangular basilica forms to the classically inspired Byzantine style. Hagia Sophia (532 AD) is a former patriarchal basilica, later a mosque, now a museum, in Istanbul, Turkey. Famous in particular for its massive dome, it is considered the epitome of Byzantine architecture and one of the most beautiful buildings in the world. ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker

  10. Romanesque 500 to 1200 AD As Rome spread across Europe, heavier, stocky Romanesque architecture with rounded arches emerged. Basilica, Paray-le-Monial, France, 1090-1110. ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker

  11. Gothic Architecture 1100 to 1450 AD Innovative builders created the great cathedrals of Europe. Notre Dame de Paris is dated back to the 12th century. It is best known for its intricate gargoyles. It also became legendary as the haunt for the Hunchback of Notre Dame. ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker

  12. Renaissance Architecture 1400 to 1600 AD A return to classical ideas ushered an "age of "awakening" in Italy, France, and England. Louvre Palace (Palais du Louvre) began as a fortress built in the 12th century under Philip II. Remnants of the fortress are still visible. The building was extended many times to form the present Louvre Palace. In 1672, Louis XIV chose the Palace of Versailles for his household, leaving the Louvre primarily as a place to display the royal collection, including, from 1692, a collection of antique sculpture. ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker

  13. Baroque Architecture 600 to 1830 AD In Italy, the Baroque style is reflected in opulent and dramatic churches with irregular shapes and extravagant ornamentation. In France, the highly ornamented Baroque style combines with Classical restraint. Russian aristocrats were impressed by Versailles in France, and incorporated Baroque ideas in the building of St. Petersburg. The Baroque Palace of Versailles in France began as a simple stone and brick home designed by Philibert Le Roy in 1624. In 1669, architect Louis Le Vau began a detailed renovation and expansion. Barocco means bizarre. ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker

  14. Rococo Architecture 1650 to 1790 AD During the last phase of the Baroque period, builders constructed elegant white buildings with sweeping curves. Benedictine Abbey at Ottobeuren The Benedictine abbey at Ottobeuren, Austria, (1748-54) was designed by Johann Michael Fischer, an 18th-century Bavarian architect. The abbey is based on a conventional basilica design. The exterior, though baroque, is relatively simple and restrained, in contrast to the interior which is extremely ornate. ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker

  15. American Colonial Architecture 1600 to 1780 AD European settlers in the New World borrowed ideas from their homelands to create their own breed of architecture. In colonial days, a Cape Cod house was a simple, one-story structure with a single chimney in the center. ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker

  16. Georgian Architecture 1720 to 1800 AD Georgian was a stately, symmetrical style that dominated in Great Britain and Ireland and influenced building styles in the American colonies. Woodlawn, near Mount Vernon, Virginia, is often called "Georgian Colonial." However, the fanlight and the elliptical window in the gable are characteristic of the Federal style. Designed by William Thornton, Woodlawn was completed in 1805. ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker

  17. Neoclassic/Federalist/Idealist 1730 to 1925 AD A renewed interest in ideas of Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio inspired a return of classical shapes in Europe, Great Britain and the United States. In spring 1792, Thomas Jefferson proposed a design competition to solicit designs for the Capitol and the President's House, and set a four-month deadline. It is located in Washington, D.C., on top of Capitol Hill at the eastern end of the National Mall. Although not in the geographic center of the District of Columbia, the Capitol is the origin by which the quadrants of the district are divided. ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker

  18. Greek Revival Architecture 1790 to 1850 AD These classical buildings and homes often feature columns, pediments and other details inspired by Greek forms. Antebellum homes in the American south were often built in the Greek Revival style. Democratic ideals are reflected in the classical details of Greek Revival homes. This home is located in Saratoga, New York. ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker

  19. Victorian Architecture 1840 to 1900 AD Industrialization brought many innovations in architecture. Victorian styles include Gothic Revival, Italianate, Stick, Eastlake, Queen Anne, Romanesque and Second Empire. What, exactly, is a Victorian? Many people use the term to describe an architectural style. However, Victorian is not really a style but a period in history. The Victorian era dates from about 1840 to 1900. During this time, industrialization brought many innovations in architecture. ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker

  20. Arts & Crafts Movement in Architecture ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker 1860 to 1900 AD Arts and Crafts was a late 19th-century backlash against the forces of industrialization. The Arts and Crafts movement revived an interest in handicrafts and sought a spiritual connection with the surrounding environment, both natural and manmade. Inspired by the simple adobe structures built by ancient tribes, comfortable, eco-friendly pueblo style homes are especially practical in dry climates. 20

  21. Art Nouveau Architecture 1890 to 1914 AD Known as the New Style, Art Nouveau buildings often have asymmetrical shapes, arches and decorative surfaces with curved, plant-like designs. • When it was built, the Wainwright Building revolutionized American architecture. The first two stories are unornamented except for the large, deep windows. Uninterrupted piers extend through the next seven stories. Horizontal panels between the piers articulate the building's interior structure. Intertwined ornaments and small round windows form the upper story. ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker

  22. Beaux Arts Architecture ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker 1895 to 1925 AD Also known as Beaux Arts Classicism, Academic Classicism, or Classical Revival, Beaux Arts architecture is characterized by order, symmetry, formal design, grandiosity, and elaborate ornamentation. The Beaux Arts Vanderbilt Marble House in Newport, Rhode Island 22

  23. Neo-Gothic Architecture ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker 1905 to 1930 AD In the early twentieth century, medieval Gothic ideas were applied to modern skyscrapers. Built in 1924, the Tribune Tower by Raymond Hood and John Howells is Neo-Gothic in design 23

  24. Art Deco Architecture ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker 1925 to 1937 AD Zigzag patterns and vertical lines create dramatic effect on jazz-age, Art Deco buildings. The Art Deco Chrysler Building in New York City has jazzy automobile ornaments 24

  25. 20th Century Trends in Architecture ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker 1900 to Present. The century has seen dramatic changes and astonishing diversity. Twentieth century trends include Art Moderne and the Bauhaus school coined by Walter Gropius, Deconstructivism, Formalism, Modernism, Structuralism, and Postmodernism. The Bank of China Tower, 1990, by Pritzker Prize-winning architect Ieoh Ming Pei. 25

  26. Architecture Timeline ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker 26

  27. Architecture Vocabulary Different Types of Architecture- Load bearing Post-and-Lintel Round Arch and Vault Pointed Arch and Vault Dome Corbelled Arch and Dome Cast-Iron Construction Ballon-Frame Construction Steel-Frame Construction Suspension Reinforced Concrete Geodesic Domes ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker

  28. Architecture Vocabulary ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker Tensile Strength- the ability of a material to span horizontal distances with minimum support form underneath. 3 Greek Architectural Styles- Doric- has no base, Ionic- stepped base, graceful spirals Corinthian- detailed base and a capital carved as a bouquet of acanthus leaves. Vocabulary for Post-and-Lintel- Pediment- top triangular element Entablature- Horizontal stone lintels elaborated into a compound structure Cornice- shelf-like projection Frieze- ornamented with sculpture in relief. Architrave- unadorned band of lintels immediately over the column Capital-topmost part between shaft and lintel (roof) Shaft- column Base- bottom portion Keystone- the topmost stone that adds the top support of the structure 28

  29. Architecture Vocabulary Types of Vaults Barrel Vault- arch is extended in depth with many arches flush behind the other Groin Vault- two barrels vaults cross at right angles Dome Vocabulary Oculus- Very top or eye of the dome Portico- Entrance porch to room. Rotunda- Rounded building Minarets- Slender towers Pendentives- Monumental round arch in triangular sections Corbelling- stones extending slightly beyond the one below, until eventually the opening is bridged. ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker