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Thermal Energy Storage and Peak Load Reduction. Mark M. MacCracken, PE, LEED AP , Pte CALMAC Mfg. Corp. Fair Lawn, NJ Calmac.com. NARUC Summer Meeting 7-16-07. Benefits of Thermal Energy Storage. Reduces Peak Demand at most critical time 20-40%

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Thermal energy storage and peak load reduction l.jpg

Thermal Energy Storage and Peak Load Reduction

Mark M. MacCracken, PE, LEEDAP, Pte

CALMAC Mfg. Corp.

Fair Lawn, NJ

Calmac.com

NARUC Summer Meeting 7-16-07


Benefits of thermal energy storage l.jpg
Benefits of Thermal Energy Storage

  • Reduces Peak Demand at most critical time 20-40%

  • Reduces consumer’s energy costs 10-20%

  • May reduce energy usage at the building up to 14%

  • Reduces source energy usage at power plant 8-34%

  • Reduces emissions up to 50%

  • Increases Load Factor of Generation up to 25%

  • Provides operational flexibility


Thermal energy storage for off peak cooling l.jpg
Thermal Energy Storage For Off-Peak Cooling

  • What is it?

  • How does it work?

  • Why is it Green?

  • Other “Green” Advantages

  • Applications/Case Studies



Most common tes system l.jpg
Most common TES System

Water Heater (Electric)

Assume one low-flow shower

((2.5gpm x 8.33 lb/gal x (110-60))

x 60 minutes/hr / 3,414 Btu/kW = 18.3 kW

East Coast of US

100,000,000 people x 25% x 1/12 Hr/shower x 18.3 kW=

38 Gigawatts = CA Electric Peak on Summer day

4.5 kW

Heater

  • Gas Water Heater

  • Design Load = 2 Showers at a time

  • 18.3 kW x 2 x 3414 = 124,950 Btus

TES has already impacted US infrastructure


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Utility Load Factors* in the USA

*Load Factor = Avg. Load

Peak Load


Ashrae 90 1 base building non storage electrical profile l.jpg

Peak Load

2000 kW

Avg. Load 1050 kW

ASHRAE 90.1 Base BuildingNon-Storage Electrical Profile

6 am

Noon

6 pm

Total kWh = 28,000/day

(Load Factor = 53%)


Design 30 better than 90 1 non storage electrical profile l.jpg

Peak Load

1500 kW

Avg.

Load

800 kW

Design 30% better than 90.1 Non-Storage Electrical Profile

6 am

Noon

6 pm

(Load Factor = 53%)

Total kWh = 19,200/day


Off peak cooling opc electrical profile l.jpg

600 kW Shed

Peak Load

900kW

Charging Storage

Off Peak Cooling (OPC) Electrical Profile

40% Peak Load Reduction

Avg.

Load

800kW

6 am

Noon

6 pm

(Load Factor = 88%)

Total kWh = 19,200/day


Power continue to be less expensive at night because of generation load factor l.jpg
Power continue to be less expensive at Night because of Generation Load Factor

4 Buildings x 1 Megawatt

= 4 Megawatts

8,000 mW-h Sold

5 Buildings with TES @ 0.8 mW

= 4 Megawatts

10,000 mW-h Sold!

The same generator produces

25% more sellable kW-h!


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3-D Electric Load Profile -- Full Year Generation Load Factor

4200 ton-hr of Storage

Installed 1990


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Large Scale Sustainable Energy Future will Require Storage Generation Load Factor

1 TRILLION Watts

of Generation in USA (approx.)

Costs of New Generation, Installed

Combined Cycle Gas Turbine ~ $0.50 to $1.00/Watt

Nuclear $3.00 to $6.00/Watt

New Coal Plant $1.50/Watt

New Clean Coal $2.00/Watt

Wind (30% Cap Factor ~ 0 Peak Reduction) $1.60/Watt

PV (30% Cap Factor ~ 15% Peak Reduction*) $7.50/ Watt

STORAGE (Thermal) $0.50 to $1.00/Watt

*NREL Report


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Thermal Energy Storage For Generation Load FactorOff-Peak Cooling

  • What is it?

  • How does it work?

  • Two Basic Systems

  • Water

  • Ice


Slide14 l.jpg

Conventional HVAC Chilled Water System Generation Load Factor

40

56

Chiller

Load

40


Slide15 l.jpg

Water Storage System Generation Load Factor

40

56

Chiller

Warm Water

56 F

Load

Thermocline

Cold Water

40 F

40


Slide16 l.jpg

Ice Storage Systems Generation Load Factor

Control Logic

  • Chiller Based System

  • Closed System

Heat Transfer

Fluid 75%H20/25%EG

So what is

“Different”?

Temperature

Modulating Valve

Storage Tanks


Bank of america tower at 1 bryant park new york city bank of america durst organization l.jpg
Bank of America Tower Generation Load Factorat 1 Bryant Park, New York CityBank of America / Durst Organization

History Channel

“Sky Scrapers” 9-7-04

~2.2 Million ft2Going for LEED Platinum


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Thermal Storage Tank Ice-on-Coil Internal Melt Generation Load Factor

Expansion Chamber

Tank

Insulation

Heat Exchanger


Slide19 l.jpg

Ice Generation Load Factor

Ice Making (Off-Peak)

500 ton

Chiller

Coil & Glycol

25

31

1000 ton

On-Peak Load

25

31

Temperature

Control Valve


Slide20 l.jpg

Direct Cooling Generation Load Factor

500 ton

Chiller

Coil & Glycol

44

54

500 ton

Load

Ice

44

Temperature

Control Valve


Slide21 l.jpg

Melted Generation Load Factor

Ice

Ice and Chiller Cooling

500 ton

Chiller

Coil & Glycol

52

60

1000 ton

Load

Ice

34- 44

44

44

Temperature

Control Valve


Basic operating modes for any storage system l.jpg

Load Reduction Generation Load Factor

90 ton or ~ 90 kW

Basic Operating Modes for any Storage System

Storage System

60 ton Chiller

1,100 ton-hr Storage

ICE

DISCHARGE

ICE

CHARGE

CHILLERS


Space l.jpg

Would need 25% of roof Generation Load Factor

space on 100 story building!

Space?

  • Full Storage: 0.70% of cooled floor space

  • Partial Storage: Ice provides about 33% of a cooling system reducing ice tank floor space to 0.23% of cooled floor space.

1 ton cools 500 ft2

1 tank provides 20 tons

1 tank cools 10,000 ft2

1 tank needs 70 ft2 (60 ft2 )

Same ratio as the water heater in your house


National air and space museum washington dc usa l.jpg

Ice Storage Tanks Generation Load Factor

for the entire

Project

National Air and Space Museum, Washington, DC USA

4,700 Ton Hrs of StorageOn-Peak Chiller – 1122 TonsOn-Peak Ice Contribution – 729 Tons40% On-Peak Chiller Demand Avoided


Thermal energy storage myths article ashrae journal sept 03 l.jpg
Thermal Energy Storage Myths Article Generation Load Factor(Ashrae Journal Sept 03)

  • 1. Uncommon

  • 2. Too Much Space

  • 3. Too Complicated

  • 4. Doesn’t Save Energy

  • 5. Too Expensive

  • 6. Lack of Redundancy (Risky)

  • Rates Will Change

  • Modeling doesn’t Show Results

Reality: TES is a

Proven Technology

that saves Money and Energy


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Thermal Energy Storage For Generation Load FactorOff-Peak Cooling

  • What is it?

  • How does it work?

  • Why is it Green?


Slide27 l.jpg

LEED Generation Load FactorTM Credits

Materials & Resources

Water Efficiency

Indoor Environmental Quality

Sustainable Sites

Energy & Atmosphere

  • Sustainable Sites: 14 points

  • Water Efficiency: 5 points

  • Energy* & Atmosphere: 17 points

  • Materials & Resources: 13 points

  • Indoor Environment Quality: 15 points

  • Innovation & Design: 5 points

69 points

*10 Energy Credit are based on ASHRAE 90.1 which is based on Energy COST Reduction


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Real reasons Off-Peak Cooling is Green: Generation Load Factor

  • It is much more Energy Efficient to create and deliver a kWh of Electricity at night than during the hot of the day.

    • Research from the California Energy Commission on 2 Cal. Utilities Reports 8 to 34% savings in raw fuel when comparing On and Off Peak Operation!

    • Heat Rates for Base Load Plants ~7,800 Btu/kWh vs.

      Peaking Plants ~9,400 to 14,000 Btu/kWh

  • The last power plants to come on during peak hours are normally the dirtiest per kW

    • Ashok Gupta (Director of Energy, NRDC) in NYTimes article “Peak Shifting results in lower emissions because some of the plants used to meet demand peaks are among the dirtiest in the city”

    • New CA Report by Greg Kats The Costs and Financial Benefits of Green Buildings states Peak power in CA is twice as dirty as Off Peak Power.


Thermal energy storage for off peak cooling29 l.jpg
Thermal Energy Storage For Generation Load FactorOff-Peak Cooling

  • What is it?

  • How does it work?

  • Why is it Green?

  • Other “Green” Advantages


Other green issues l.jpg
Other “Green” Issues Generation Load Factor

  • Safety Factors/Redundancy (Oversizing)

    • Well documented that oversizing chiller plants creates less efficient real world operation.

    • Engineers have to protect their license

  • Storage is the Natural solution


Safety factor and redundancy without oversizing for same cost l.jpg
Safety Factor and Redundancy Generation Load FactorWithout Oversizing for same Cost

Storage System

2 - 400 ton Chiller

3,500 ton-hr Storage

* as per GSA Guideline P-100


Design day off peak cooling system l.jpg
Design Day Off-Peak Cooling System Generation Load Factor

Storage System

2- 400 ton Chillers

3,500 ton-hr Storage

Installed Chillers

Max Capacity

500 ton Load Reduction

or ~ 375 kW

STORAGE

DISCHARGE

CHILLERS

(ONLY 500 TONS)

STORAGE

CHARGE


Costs of storage l.jpg
Costs of Storage Generation Load Factor

  • What’s the Installed Cost of a ton of Chiller Plant?

  • $1000/ton , $1200/ton, $1400/ton $1600/ton, $1800/ton

  • Storage Costs installed ~ $100 to $150 per ton-hr

  • Depending on location, application and design

  • For each 1 ton of chiller you reduce you need about 8 to 9 ton-hrs of storage.

Costs are similar to conventional design for New Construction


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Thermal Energy Storage For Generation Load FactorOff-Peak Cooling

  • What is it?

  • How does it work?

  • Why is it Green?

  • Other “Green” Advantages

  • Applications/Case Studies


Ul 8 000 ton hr 2 5 days to install l.jpg
UL Generation Load Factor8,000 Ton-Hr2.5 days to install


Costco installations 3 in japan 2 in korea 2 in usa l.jpg
Costco Installations Generation Load Factor3 in Japan2 in Korea2 in USA


Slide37 l.jpg

Durst Headquarters Retrofit Generation Load Factor1155 Avenue of the Americas

41 Stories3400 Ton Hours StorageAvoids  700kW out of 3500kW Original Total


Slide38 l.jpg

Ice Plant in Series with Water Chiller Generation Load Factor

TO

LOAD

FROM

LOAD

490 ICE-MAKING TONS

HX

DEMAND LIMITED

TO 700 TONS

ICE

STORAGE

ICE

STORAGE

TS

VFD PUMP

~1200 TONS


Credit suisse 11 madison ave l.jpg
Credit Suisse Generation Load Factor11 Madison Ave.

30 Stories, 2.2 Million Ft2

6200 Ton Hours Storage

Avoids ~ 900 kW

NYSERDA Incentive $620,000

Main reason for Storage: Resiliency


Morgan stanley l.jpg
Morgan Stanley Generation Load Factor


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Morgan Stanley Generation Load FactorWestchester, NY


1 bryant park bank of america tower 2 2 million sqft l.jpg
1 Bryant Park Generation Load FactorBank of America Tower2.2 Million Sqft


Bank of america tower icebank facts l.jpg
Bank of America Tower Generation Load Factor ICEBANK Facts

Over Half a Million Pounds of Ice made every night.

Enough Ice to Cool 250 Homes

1000 Tons of Air Conditioning Shifted to Off-Peak


Goldman sachs new york city l.jpg
Goldman-Sachs Generation Load FactorNew York City

2.2 Million Sqft.6,000 tons Peak4,500 tons of Chiller (Only 3000 during the Day)19,000 Ton-hr of Ice Storage~2 MW ReductionGoing for LEED Gold


Off peak cooling in over 6000 installations in 35 countries many installed over 20 years ago l.jpg
Off-Peak Cooling… in over 6000 installations in 35 countries, many installed over 20 years ago


Slide46 l.jpg

Questions? countries, many installed over 20 years ago

Mark M. MacCracken, CEO

MM@Calmac.com

www.Calmac.com

201-797-1511

NARUC Summer Meeting 7-16-07