Quoting: • repeating or copying something spoken or written, always indicating that it’s not original by who’s writing or speaking. • Paraphrasing: • express the meaning of something spoken or written; to clarify; mostly to simplify. • Summarizing: • give a brief statement on the main point of something spoken or written.
They differ on how close your written or spoken work is to an original source.
Why use them? • Provide support and add credibility to your written or spoken work. • Reference to what lead you in your own work. • Examples of points of view. • To emphasize on positions you may agree or disagree with. • To highlight particular ideas, phrases or sentences by quoting the original. • To expand on your own work.
How to use them? • Read the entire text taking notes on key points and main ideas. • Summarize in your own words the single main idea. • Paraphrase important supporting points found in the text you are reading for support. • Consider or write down any words, phrases or brief passages you believe should be quoted directly.
Whytake notes? • Fast memory fades. • (University of Texas at Austin). • Studies on memory show that without review • 48% of what a person has just learned is forgotten in the first twenty minutes • 62% is forgotten after the first day.
“Whether you’re a high school junior or a college senior or a grad student or a mid-level professional or the Attorney General of the United States, the ability to take effective, meaningful notes is a crucial skill. Not only do good notes help us recall facts and ideas we may have forgotten, the act of writing things down helps many of us to remember them better in the first place.” Dustin M. Wax on www.lifehack.org – www.dustinwax.com
What Do Notes Do? • Having good class notes to review can determine how well you are able to perform on exams. • One of the reasons people have trouble taking effective notes is that they’re not really sure what notes are for. • Do not attempt to record a complete class in notes. • The purpose of note-taking is simple: to help you study better and more quickly. • Your notes don’t have to contain everything. • They must contain the most important things.
FiveAwardWinningTips • Gotoclassprepared. "Always have a plan and believe in it. Nothing good happens by accident." -- Chuck Knox, NFL football coach • Improveyourlisteningskills. "Learn how to listen and you will prosper even from those who talk badly." -- Plutarch (A.D. 46 - 120). Greek biographer and philosopher • Develop a note taking method that works for you. "Learn, compare, collect the facts." -- Ivan Petrovic Pavlov (1849 - 1936), Russian physiologist. • Play close attention to content. "There is a great difference between knowing a thing and understanding it." -- Charles Kettering (1876 - 1958), American electrical engineer and inventor • Review and edit your notes. "Ideas won't keep; something must be done about them." -- Alfred North Whitehead (1861 - 1947), English mathematician and philosopher
WhattoWrite Down • Focuson: • What’s new toyou. • What’srelevant: • Dates, names, theories, definitions, arguments and debates, images and exercises, thingswrittenonboard and yourownquestions.
Note-TakingTechniques • Outlining • Mind-mapping • TheCornellSystem
Easier Techniques • 2 – 6 Method – George Mason University • Split page method - two or three columns – Sherry Reynolds • Use group notes – Fred Weening • Recorder – transcription – Brian Pitzer
TIPS • Come toclassprepared and withan open mind. • Start a new page foreachclass. • Don’t try towritedowneverywordyourteachersays. • Writedownthebig ideas. • Use abbreviationsforcommonlyoccuringnames and words. You can inventyourown! • Leavelots of roomonthe page. • Use diagrams and pictureswherenecessary. • Writedowncorresponding page numberstoyourtextbook. • Reviewyour notes foraccuracy. • Obtain notes formissedclasses.
… more tips! • Use colors • If you know the topic research and be prepared so you can ask relevant question on time. • Reorganize and rewrite the notes taking within the next 24 hours. • Attend class! • Janet Jenkins, KiranMisra, Ms. SreelathaAnand & Nicole Watts on www.academictips.org
Bibliography • http://www.lifehack.org/articles/productivity/advice-for-students-taking-notes-that-work.html • http://teachingtoday.glencoe.com/userfiles/file/note-taking_download.pdf • http://jerz.setonhill.edu/writing/academic/notes-tips.htm • http://www.academictips.org/acad/literature/notetaking.html