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IB Biology. Ecology Unit Option G1 – G2 Selected Topics. Competitive Exclusion. No two species in a community can occupy the same niche. Species B niche. Species A niche. Fundamental vs. Realized Niche.

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ib biology

IB Biology

Ecology Unit Option G1 – G2

Selected Topics

competitive exclusion
Competitive Exclusion
  • No two species in a community can occupy the same niche

Species B niche

Species A niche

fundamental vs realized niche
Fundamental vs. Realized Niche
  • Fundamental Niche: the potential mode of existence, given the adaptation of the species
  • Realized Niche: the actual mode of existence, which results from its adaptations and competition with other species

Fundamental Niche

Competition II

Competition I

Realized Niche

Competition III

  • Total dry mass of organic matter of living organisms (measured in g m-2 yr-1)
  • A table can be used to determine biomass of living organisms based on their weight (how do you suppose this is made?)
  • Can be calculated for large areas by random selection of a sample ecosystem subdivision
    • Sample plot can be measured thoroughly and a table can be used or…
    • Sample plot organic matter could be collected, dried, and weighed
primary succession
Primary Succession
  • Occurs when plants begin growing on previously lifeless areas. (i.e. volcanic island)
  • Little to no soil
  • Lichens (decompose thin layers of rock)
  • Pioneering plants
  • Mosses
  • Soil buildup
  • Low productivity
secondary succession
Secondary Succession
  • New group of organisms takes over after a dramatic environmental change (forest fire, flood, etc…)
  • Soil already present
  • Faster process
  • High productivity


organisms effect on the abiotic environment
Organisms effect on the abiotic environment
  • Increase in organic matter
  • Soil depth
  • Erosion
  • Soil structure
  • Mineral recycling