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Special Senses

Special Senses

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Special Senses

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  1. Special Senses • Special sensory receptors • Distinct, localized receptor cells in head • Vision • Taste • Smell • Hearing • Equilibrium © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

  2. The Eye and Vision • 70% of body's sensory receptors in eye • Visual processing by ~ half cerebral cortex • Most of eye protected by cushion of fat and bony orbit Accessory Structures of the Eye • Protect the eye and aid eye function • Eyebrows • Eyelids (palpebrae) • Conjunctiva • Lacrimal apparatus • Extrinsic eye muscles © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

  3. Figure 15.1a The eye and accessory structures. Eyebrow Eyelid Eyelashes Site where conjunctiva merges with cornea Palpebral Fissure (eyelid slit) Lateral commissure Iris Pupil *Lacrimal caruncle Eyelid Medial commissure Sclera (covered by conjunctiva) Surface anatomy of the right eye • *Contains oil and sweat glands © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

  4. Figure 15.1b The eye and accessory structures. Levatorpalpebrae superioris muscle (raises eyelid to open the eye) Orbicularis oculi muscle (contraction: eye closes) Eyebrow Tarsal plate (connective tissue; supports the eyelids) Cornea Palpebral fissure Eyelashes Orbicularis oculi muscle some structures shown in sagittal section Lateral view; © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

  5. Conjunctiva • Transparent mucous membrane • Produces a lubricating mucous secretion • Palpebral conjunctiva lines eyelids • Bulbar conjunctiva covers white of eyes • Conjunctivalsac between palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva • Where contact lens rests © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

  6. Lacrimal Apparatus • Lacrimal gland and ducts that drain into nasal cavity • Lacrimal glandin orbit above lateral end of eye • Lacrimal secretion (tears) • Dilute saline solution containing mucus, antibodies, and lysozyme • Blinking spreads tears toward medial commissure • Tears enter paired lacrimal canaliculivia lacrimal puncta • Then drain into lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct Lacrimal gland Excretory ducts of lacrimal glands Lacrimal sac Lacrimal punctum Lacrimal canaliculus Nasolacrimal duct Inferior meatus of nasal cavity Nostril

  7. Extrinsic Eye Muscles Superior oblique tendon Superior oblique muscle Superior rectus muscle Lateral rectus muscle • Six muscles: • Four rectus muscles; names indicate movements • Superior, inferior, lateral, medial rectus muscles • Two oblique muscles move eye in vertical plane and rotate eyeball • Superior and inferior oblique muscles Inferior oblique muscle Inferior rectus muscle Lateral view of the right eye

  8. Figure 15.3b Extrinsic eye muscles. Trochlea Superior oblique muscle Axis of rotation of eye Superior oblique tendon Superior rectus muscle Inferior rectus muscle Medial rectus muscle Lateral rectus muscle Common tendinous ring Superior view of the right eye © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

  9. Figure 15.3c Extrinsic eye muscles. Action Controlling cranial nerve Muscle Lateral rectus Moves eye laterally VI (abducens) Medial rectus Moves eye medially III (oculomotor) Superior rectus Elevates eye and turns it medially III (oculomotor) Inferior rectus III (oculomotor) Depresses eye and turns it medially Inferior oblique III (oculomotor) Elevates eye and turns it laterally Superior oblique IV (trochlear) Depresses eye and turns it laterally Summary of muscle actions and innervating cranial nerves © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

  10. Structure of the Eyeball • Wall of eyeball contains three layers • Fibrous • Vascular • Inner • Internal cavity filled with fluids called humors • Lens separates internal cavity into anterior & posterior segments (cavities) © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

  11. Figure 15.4a Internal structure of the eye (sagittal section). Sclera Ciliary body Choroid Ciliary zonule (suspensory ligament) Retina Macula lutea Cornea Fovea centralis Iris Pupil Optic nerve Anterior pole Anterior segment (contains aqueous humor) Lens Central artery and vein of the retina Scleral venous sinus Posterior segment (contains vitreous humor) Optic disc (blind spot) Diagrammatic view. The vitreous humor is illustrated only in the bottom part of the eyeball. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

  12. Figure 15.4b Internal structure of the eye (sagittal section). Ciliary body Vitreous humor in posterior segment Retina Iris Choroid Margin of pupil Sclera Fovea centralis Anterior segment Optic disc Lens Optic nerve Cornea Photograph of the human eye. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TXFt1Ikl__I&feature=endscreen © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

  13. Fibrous Layer • Outermost layer; dense avascular connective tissue • Two regions: sclera and cornea 1. Sclera • Opaque posterior region • Protects, shapes eyeball 2. Cornea • Transparent anterior • Bends light as it enters eye

  14. Vascular Layer (Uvea) • Middle pigmented layer • Three regions: choroid, ciliary body, and iris 1. Choroid region (posterior portion of uvea) • Supplies blood to all layers of eyeball Brown pigment absorbs light to prevent light scattering and visual confusion2. Ciliary body • Ring of tissue surrounding lens • Smooth muscle bundles (ciliary muscles) control lens shape • Ciliary zonule (suspensory ligament) holds lens in position 3. Iris (Colored part of eye) • Pupil—central opening that regulates amount of light entering eye • Close vision and bright light—sphincter pupillae (circular muscles) contract; pupils constrict • Distant vision and dim light—dilator pupillae (radial muscles) contract; pupils dilate – sympathetic fibers • Changes in emotional state—pupils dilate when subject matter is appealing or requires problem-solving skills

  15. Figure 15.5 Pupil constriction and dilation, anterior view. Sympathetic + Parasympathetic + Iris (two muscles) • Sphincter pupillae • Dilator pupillae Dilator pupillae muscle contracts: Pupil size increases. Sphincter pupillae muscle contracts: Pupil size decreases. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

  16. Inner Layer: Retina • Delicate two-layered membrane • Outer Pigmented layer • Single-cell-thick lining • Absorbs light and prevents its scattering • Phagocytize photoreceptor cell fragments • Stores vitamin A • Inner Neural layer • Transparent • Composed of three main types of neurons • Photoreceptors, bipolar cells, ganglion cells • Signals spread from photoreceptors to bipolar cells to ganglion cells • Ganglion cell axons exit eye as optic nerve © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

  17. The Retina • Optic disc (blind spot) • Site where optic nerve leaves eye • Lacks photoreceptors • Quarter-billion photoreceptors of two types • Rods • Cones http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Y-HghqvGtg&feature=related © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

  18. Figure 15.6a Microscopic anatomy of the retina. Neural layer of retina Pigmented layer of retina Pathway of light Choroid Sclera Optic disc Central artery and vein of retina Optic nerve Posterior aspect of the eyeball © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

  19. Figure 15.6b Microscopic anatomy of the retina. Ganglion cells Photoreceptors Bipolar cells • Rod • Cone Axons of ganglion cells Amacrine cell Horizontal cell Pathway of signal output Pigmented layer of retina Pathway of light Cells of the neural layer of the retina © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

  20. Figure 15.6c Microscopic anatomy of the retina. Choroid Outer segments of rods and cones Nuclei of ganglion cells Nuclei of bipolar cells Nuclei of rods and cones Axons of ganglion cells Pigmented layer of retina Photomicrograph of retina © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

  21. Photoreceptors • Rods • Dim light, peripheral vision receptors • No color vision or sharp images • Numbers greatest at periphery • Cones • Vision receptors for bright light • High-resolution color vision • Fovea centralis • Tiny pit in center of macula with all cones; best vision

  22. Internal Chambers and Fluids • The lens and ciliary zonule separate eye into two segments • Anterior and posterior segments © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

  23. Internal Chambers and Fluids • Posterior segment contains vitreous humor that • Transmits light • Supports posterior surface of lens • Holds neural layer of retina firmly against pigmented layer • Contributes to intraocular pressure • Forms in embryo; lasts lifetime • Anterior segment composed of two chambers • Anterior chamber—between cornea and iris • Posterior chamber—between iris and lens © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

  24. Internal Chambers and Fluids • Anterior segment contains aqueous humor • Plasma like fluid continuously formed by capillaries of ciliary processes • Supplies nutrients and oxygen mainly to lens and cornea but also to retina, and removes wastes • Glaucoma: blocked drainage of aqueous humor increases pressure and causes compression of retina and optic nerve  blindness

  25. Figure 15.4a Internal structure of the eye (sagittal section). Sclera Ciliary body Choroid Ciliary zonule (suspensory ligament) Retina Macula lutea Cornea Fovea centralis Iris Posterior pole Pupil Optic nerve Anterior pole Anterior segment (contains aqueous humor) Lens Central artery and vein of the retina Scleral venous sinus Optic disc (blind spot) Posterior segment (contains vitreous humor) Diagrammatic view. The vitreous humor is illustrated only in the bottom part of the eyeball. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

  26. Figure 15.8 Circulation of aqueous humor. Posterior segment (contains vitreous humor) Iris Cornea Lens Lens epithelium Lens Cornea 2 Corneal epithelium Corneal endothelium Aqueous humor Aqueous humor forms by filtration from the capillaries in the ciliary processes. 1 Anterior chamber Ciliary zonule (suspensory ligament) Anterior segment (contains aqueous humor) Posterior chamber Aqueous humor flows from the posterior chamber through the pupil into the anterior chamber. Some also flows through the vitreous humor (not shown). 2 3 1 Scleral venous sinus Ciliary processes Corneoscleral junction Ciliary body Ciliary muscle Bulbar conjunctiva Aqueous humor is reabsorbed into the venous blood by the scleral venous sinus. 3 Sclera © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

  27. Lens • Biconvex, transparent, flexible, and avascular • Changes shape to precisely focus light on retina • Two regions • Lens becomes more dense, convex, less elastic with age • cataracts (clouding of lens) consequence of aging, diabetes mellitus, heavy smoking, frequent exposure to intense sunlight © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

  28. Figure 15.9 Photograph of a cataract. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

  29. Visual Pathways

  30. Visual Pathways • Ganglion cells of the retina make up optic nerves • Left and right optic nerves (II) into brain via optic foraminae • Optic chiasma (nasal side fibers cross to contralateral brain) • Optic tracts (carry fibers back to the thalamsus) • Ganlion cell axons terminate in lateral geniculate n. of thalamus • Optic radiations carry fibers back to occipital cortex

  31. The Chemical Senses: Smell And Taste • Smell (olfaction) and taste (gustation) • Chemoreceptors respond to chemicals in aqueous solution • Taste – to substances dissolved in saliva • Smell – to substances dissolved in fluids of the nasal membranes

  32. Sense of Smell

  33. Taste Buds • Most of the 10,000 or so taste buds are found on the tongue • Taste buds are found in papillae of the tongue mucosa • Papillae come in three types: filiform, fungiform, and circumvallate • Fungiform and circumvallate papillae contain taste buds

  34. Taste Buds

  35. Basic Taste Sensations • There are five basic taste sensations • Sweet—sugars, saccharin, alcohol, some amino acids, some lead salts • Sour—hydrogen ions in solution • Salty—metal ions (inorganic salts) • Bitter—alkaloids such as quinine and nicotine; aspirin • Umami—amino acids glutamate and aspartate © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

  36. Gustatory Pathway

  37. The Ear: Hearing and Balance • Three major areas of ear • External (outer) ear – hearing only • Middle ear (tympanic cavity) – hearing only • Internal (inner) ear – hearing and equilibrium • Receptors for hearing and balance respond to separate stimuli • Are activated independently © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

  38. External Ear • Auricle(pinna)Composed of • Helix (rim); Lobule (earlobe) • Funnels sound waves into auditory canal • External acoustic meatus (auditory canal) • Short, curved tube lined with skin bearing hairs, sebaceous glands, and ceruminous glands • Transmits sound waves to eardrum • Tympanic membrane (eardrum) • Boundary between external and middle ears • Connective tissue membrane that vibrates in response to sound • Transfers sound energy to bones of middle ear © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

  39. Figure 15.24a Structure of the ear. Internal ear (labyrinth) Middle ear External ear Auricle (pinna) Helix Lobule External acoustic meatus Tympanic membrane Pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube The three regions of the ear © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

  40. Middle Ear (Tympanic Cavity) • A small, air-filled, mucosa-lined cavity in temporal bone • Connected laterally by eardrum • Connected medially by bony wall containing oval (vestibular) and round (cochlear) windows • Epitympanic recess—superior portion of middle ear • Mastoid antrum • Canal for communication with mastoid air cells • Pharyngotympanic (auditory)tube—connects middle ear to nasopharynx • Equalizes pressure in middle ear cavity with external air pressure

  41. Figure 15.24b Structure of the ear. Oval window (deep to stapes) Semicircular canals Entrance to mastoid antrum in the epitympanic recess Malleus (hammer) Vestibule Incus (anvil) Auditory ossicles Vestibular nerve Stapes (stirrup) Cochlear nerve Tympanic membrane Cochlea Round window Pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube Middle and internal ear © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

  42. Otitis Media • Middle ear inflammation • Especially in children • Shorter, more horizontal pharyngotympanic tubes • Most frequent cause of hearing loss in children • Most treated with antibiotics • Myringotomy to relieve pressure if severeMyringotomy (myringa: eardrum):A surgical procedure; a tiny incision is created in the eardrum to relieve pressure caused by excessive build-up of fluid or to drain pus from the middle ear. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

  43. Ear Ossicles • Three small bones in tympanic cavity: the malleus, incus, and stapes • Suspended by ligaments and joined by synovial joints • Transmit vibratory motion of eardrum to oval window • Tensor tympani and stapedius muscles contract reflexively in response to loud sounds to prevent damage to hearing receptors © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

  44. Figure 15.25 The three auditory ossicles and associated skeletal muscles. View Malleus Incus Epitympanic recess Superior Lateral Anterior Stapes Pharyngotym- panic tube Tensor tympani muscle Tympanic membrane (medial view) Stapedius muscle © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

  45. Internal Ear • Bony labyrinth • Tortuous channels in temporalbone • Three regions: 1)vestibule, 2) semicircular canals, and 3) cochlea • Filled with perilymph – similar to CSF • Membranous labyrinth • Series of membranous sacs and ducts • Filled with potassium-rich endolymph © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

  46. Figure 15.26 Membranous labyrinth of the internal ear. Temporal bone Facial nerve Semicircular ducts in semicircular canals Vestibular nerve Superior vestibular ganglion Anterior Posterior Inferior vestibular ganglion Lateral Cristae ampullares in the membranous ampullae Cochlear nerve Maculae Spiral organ Utricle in vestibule Cochlear duct in cochlea Saccule in vestibule Stapes in oval window Round window © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

  47. Vestibule • Central egg-shaped cavity of bony labyrinth • Contains two membranous sacs • Saccule is continuous with cochlear duct • Utricle is continuous with semicircular canals • These sacs • House equilibrium receptor regions (maculae) • Respond to gravity and changes in position of head © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

  48. Semicircular Canals • Three canals (anterior, lateral, and posterior) • Membranous semicircular ducts line each canal and communicate with utricle • Ampulla of each canal houses equilibrium receptor region called the crista ampullaris • Receptors respond to angular (rotational) movements of the head © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

  49. Figure 15.26 Membranous labyrinth of the internal ear. Temporal bone Facial nerve Semicircular ducts in semicircular canals Vestibular nerve Superior vestibular ganglion Anterior Posterior Inferior vestibular ganglion Lateral Cristae ampullares in the membranous ampullae Cochlear nerve Maculae Spiral organ Utricle in vestibule Cochlear duct in cochlea Saccule in vestibule Stapes in oval window Round window © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.