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Child Psychology. Late Adolescence Chapters 13 & 14 Physical, Cognitive, Social & Emotional Development. Agenda. Health & safety issues Cognitive development Gender differences in self-esteem & gender research in general Autonomy, sexuality, & consequences Adolescent psychopathology.

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child psychology

Child Psychology

Late Adolescence

Chapters 13 & 14

Physical, Cognitive, Social & Emotional Development

agenda
Agenda
  • Health & safety issues
  • Cognitive development
  • Gender differences in self-esteem & gender research in general
  • Autonomy, sexuality, & consequences
  • Adolescent psychopathology
health safety issues
Health & safety issues
  • Accidents
  • Homicides
  • Suicide
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases
accidents homicide
Accidents & Homicide
  • First and second leading causes of death of 15-24 year-olds
  • Accidents
    • High rates of risky behaviors
    • New drivers = poor drivers
  • Homicide
    • US: highest homicide rate
    • Unable to plan & weigh consequences
suicide risk factors in adolescents
Suicide Risk Factors in Adolescents
  • A psychiatric problem, antisocial behavior, substance abuse
  • Belonging to a family with a history of suicide
  • Experiencing high levels of stress
  • Experiencing family problems or high levels of family conflict
sexually transmitted diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • Diseases that may be transmitted from one person to another through sexual contact
  • Teen STD risk factors:
    • Multiple sexual partners rather than a single long-term relationship
    • Unprotected sexual intercourse
    • High-risk partners
  • AIDS
    • Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
cognitive development
Cognitive Development
  • Social cognition
    • Thinking about people and interpersonal relationships
  • Social perspective taking
    • Understanding Other People’s Perspectives
gender differences in self esteem
Gender Differences in Self-Esteem
  • Meta analysis
  • Purpose & techniques
  • Meta analysis: Gender Differences in Self-Esteem
    • Gender & self-esteem became an especially hot issue after AAUW study, followed by two widely read books
    • How big is the difference?
no meta analyses until
No meta-analyses…until
    • O’Brien, Leitzel, Mensky, Jeffreys, O’Brien, & Marchese (1996). Gender differences in self-esteem among adolescents: A meta-analysis. 104th annual convention of the American Psychological Association, Toronto.
  • 129 effect sizes from 80 studies
  • two individuals rated each
  • represented 71,113 subjects
  • mean d value across studies was 0.20, 0.22 corrected for reliability of measures
misconceptions about sex differences
Misconceptions about sex differences
  • Eagly, A. (1995) The science and politics of comparing men and women. American Psychologist, 50, 145-58.
    • Sex differences are small
    • Sex differences are quite inconsistent across studies
    • Sex-differences are artifactual
    • Sex-difference findings disconfirm gender stereotypes
misconceptions sex differences
Misconceptions: sex differences
  • Sex differences are small
    • in general the findings with respect to sex differences are effects in the small to medium range that is fairly typical of psychological research generally
    • large effects are unusual in gender comparisons, as they are in psychological research generally.
  • Sex differences are inconsistent across studies
    • Inconsistencies across studies no more than is typical across many areas of psychological research
    • Growing awareness that just about everything we measure in psychology is context dependent in some way
misconceptions sex differences1
Misconceptions: sex differences
  • Sex-differences are artifactual
    • Publication bias for significant findings
      • Gender differences are often peripheral to main aims of study
    • Gender of author(s) – significant in some areas of social psychology (conformity & gender) not in meta-analysis of SE.
  • Sex-difference findings disconfirm gender stereotypes
    • Differences favor males in:
      • Aspects of visuospatial ability
      • Agentic behavior, dominant, controlling, independent
    • Females favored in:
      • Measures of verbal fluency
      • Communal behavior, socially sensitive, friendly, concerned with others welfare
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Gender differences research
    • Magnitude and consistency of differences across studies very similar to most areas of inquiry in psychology
development of autonomy
Development of Autonomy
  • Emotional autonomy
    • understands oneself as a person who is emotionally distinct from one's parents
  • Behavioral autonomy
    • can make and follow through with decisions regulating one's behavior
  • Values autonomy
    • makes judgments and choices about personal beliefs and principles
  • Factors that Contribute to Adolescent Autonomy
adolescent sexual development
Adolescent Sexual Development
  • Double standard
  • Adolescent contraceptive use success
    • information
    • acknowledging likelihood of sex
    • obtaining contraception
    • communication with partner
    • using correctly
  • Teen Pregnancy
adolescent sexual devel cont
Adolescent Sexual Devel. (cont.)
  • Effective sex ed. programs:
    • communication, negotiation, and refusal skills
    • reduce behaviors leading to preg. or STDs
    • basic, accurate information
    • address social and media pressures re: sex
  • Adolescent parents often exhibit
    • Lack of knowledge about child development
    • Anxiousness and frustration about parenting
    • Little interaction with infants
    • Negative exchanges with their children
    • Negative attitudes toward parenting
problems of development
Problems of development
  • Delinquency
    • < 21 year olds account for 30% of arrests in US
    • Factors related to delinquency
      • Gender
      • Difficult temperament
      • Low intelligence
      • Peer rejection in childhood
      • Family environment
    • Prevention and treatment
      • Early and targeting parents, schools and communities
      • Treatments that work include teaching cognitive and social skills to assist in overcoming difficulties
problems con t
Problems (con’t)
  • Depression
    • Symptoms
    • Factors related to depression
      • Genetics
      • Parental depression (maladaptive parenting)
      • Learned helplessness
      • Gender differences
    • Suicide
      • Second or third leading cause of death
      • Gender differences
adolescent psychopathology
Adolescent Psychopathology
  • Lewinsohn, P.M., Hops, H., Roberts, R.E., Seeley, J.R., & Andrews, J.A. (1993). Adolescent psychopathology: I. Prevalence and incidence of depression and other DSM-III-R disorders in high school students. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102(1), 133-144.
  • Randomly selected sample of high school students n=1,710 at point of entry and 1,508 at 1-yr follow-up
  • Western Oregon, Eugene area
  • Representative sample
  • Clinical interview
  • Very expensive study
general findings
General findings
  • almost 10% - current psychiatric disorder
  • nearly 40% had experienced disorder during lifetime
  • females experienced greater incidence
  • most common: depression, anxiety disorders, substance abuse, and disruptive behavior disorders
  • indicates need for stronger prevention efforts