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氮族元素. 单元复习. CBW. +7 2 5. 氮( N). +15 2 8 5. 磷( P). +33 2 8 18 5. 砷( As). +51 2 8 18 18 5. 锑( Sb). +83 2 8 18 32 18 5. 铋( Bi). 最外层电子数:5. 电子层数:递增. 原子半径:递增. 元素非金属性:逐渐减弱. 元素主要化合价: -3 +3 +5. CBW. -3 0 +2 +4 +5. N.

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slide1
氮族元素

单元复习

CBW

slide2

+7 2 5

氮(N)

+15 2 8 5

磷(P)

+33 2 8 18 5

砷(As)

+51 2 8 18 18 5

锑(Sb)

+83 2 8 18 32 18 5

铋(Bi)

最外层电子数:5

电子层数:递增

原子半径:递增

元素非金属性:逐渐减弱

元素主要化合价:

-3 +3 +5

CBW

slide3

-3 0 +2 +4 +5

N

N

N

N

N

氮元素不同价态间的转化

CBW

slide4

Mg3N2

NH3•H2O

NH3

NO

NH4Cl

NH4NO3

(NH4)2SO4

使指示剂变色

与碱性氧化物反应

酸的通性

与碱反应

与盐反应

不稳定性

稀HNO3+Cu

NO

浓HNO3+Cu

NO2

强氧化性

C

Al、Fe

钝化

(常温)

NH4HCO3

N2

NO2

HNO3

CBW

slide5

.

.

N

N

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

N

N

[氮气的结构]

电子式

结构式

slide6

催化剂

N2+3H2 2NH3

高温、高压

放电

N2+O2 2NO

点燃

3Mg+N2 Mg3N2

[氮气的化学性质]

slide7

.

.

.

.

H

.

.

.

.

H

N

H

[氨气的结构]

电子式

N

结构式

H

(三角锥)

H

H

slide8

催化剂

4NH3+5O2 4NO+6H2O

[氨气的化学性质]

NH3+H2O NH3·H2O NH4++OH-

NH3+HCl=NH4Cl(白烟)

slide9

NH3•H2O(浓)NH3 +H2O

碱石灰

NH3•H2O NH3 +H2O

[实验室制氨]

Ca(OH)2+2NH4Cl CaCl2+2NH3 +2H2O

slide11

2NO+O2=2NO2

3NO2+H2O=2HNO3+NO

4NO2+O2+2H2O=4HNO3

4NO+3O2+2H2O=4HNO3

slide12

光照

4HNO3 === 2H2O + 4NO2 + O2

[硝酸的性质]

slide13

光照

4HNO3 === 2H2O + 4NO2 + O2

3Cu + 8HNO3(稀)= 3Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO +4H2O

[硝酸的性质]

slide14

光照

4HNO3 === 2H2O + 4NO2 + O2

3Cu + 8HNO3(稀)= 3Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO +4H2O

Cu + 4HNO3(浓) = Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO2 + 2H2O

[硝酸的性质]

slide15

光照

4HNO3 === 2H2O + 4NO2 + O2

3Cu + 8HNO3(稀)= 3Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO +4H2O

Cu + 4HNO3(浓) = Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO2 + 2H2O

C + 4HNO3(浓)CO2 + 4NO2 + 2H2O

[硝酸的性质]

slide16
本章重点题型:
  • NO,NO2,O2等气体通入水中的计算
  • 喷泉实验所得溶液浓度的计算
  • 硝酸与单质反应的计算
slide17

≺2:5 剩O2

氮氧比

=2:5 无剩余

≻2:5 剩NO

[总结]

如何快速判断反应结果?

slide18

[磷的单质及其化合物]

单质:白磷(P4)、红磷

氧化物:五氧化二磷(P2O5)

最高价含氧酸:磷酸(H3PO4)

偏磷酸(HPO3)

slide19

(酸性干燥剂)

高温

点燃

点燃

点燃

2P + 3H2 == 2PH3

2P + 5Cl2 == 2PCl5 (白烟)

2P + 3Cl2 == 2PCl3(白雾)

4P + 5O2 == 2P2O5

slide20

祝大家取得好成绩!

好好复习

认真应考