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Cultures in Conflict. West Texas at War p. 395 - 400. The Peace Policy Ends. Quaker agents in the United States had worked for peace for several years, but their peaceful policies in Texas were questioned in 1871. Many complaints were made about Native American raids.

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cultures in conflict

Cultures in Conflict

West Texas at War

p. 395 - 400

the peace policy ends
The Peace Policy Ends
  • Quaker agents in the United States had worked for peace for several years, but their peaceful policies in Texas were questioned in 1871.
  • Many complaints were made about Native American raids.
  • General William Tecumseh Sherman was sent to investigate and became convinced the peaceful policies were unsuccessful.
  • While Sherman was visiting Fort Richardson, a group of Kiowa's attacked a wagon train traveling nearby along Salt Creek.
the peace policy ends1
The Peace Policy Ends
  • This attack became known as the Warren Wagontrain Raid
  • Satanta and two other Kiowa chiefs, Big Tree and Satank, were arrested and taken back for trial.
  • While trying to escape form the transport wagon, Satank as killed along the way, but Satanta and Big Treed were tried, found guilty, and sentenced to hang.
  • Federal officials were afraid the death sentence would start a war so each chief was paroled.
the peace policy ends2
The Peace Policy Ends
  • Later Satanta was accused of more raid, and was sent to Huntsville prison, where he is believed to have killed himself.
  • The Warren Wagontrail Raid changed the attitude of many of the military leaders.
  • The peace policy was abandoned.
  • Native Americans would now be forced onto reservations.
mackenzie leads the early texas campaigns
Mackenzie Leads the Early Texas Campaigns
  • Led by Colonel Ranald . Mackenzie, the Fourth Cavalry located Comanche parties on the South Plains.
  • Quanah Parker, the Comanche leader, outwitted Mackenzie by leading his people away form their camp during a snowstorm.
  • By 1873, Comanche raids on West Texas had declined.
  • In 1873, from its base at Fort Clark, the army concentrated is efforts along the Rio Grande River.
  • Mackenzie crossed the Rio Grande and attacked the Kickapoos and Apaches-the border became more peaceful.
native americans depend on the buffalo
Native Americans Depend on the Buffalo
  • The culture of the nomadic Plains people depended upon open land, the horse, and buffalo.
  • The Native Americans who loved on the plains feared that the rapidly increasing number of buffalo hunters would soon end their way of life because they depended on the buffalo for much of their food and many other necessities.
buffalo herds are slaughtered
Buffalo Herds Are Slaughtered
  • The era of the buffalo hunt in Texas was begun by Charles Rath and brothers John and J. Wright Mooar.
  • They recognized the value of buffalo hides and developed a market for them.
  • The slaughter of the buffalo herds began early in the 1870’s, and by 1873 the herds north of Texas had been wiped out.
  • A law was proposed in Texas legislature to protect the buffalo, it was defeated.
  • The buffalo hunters left Texas filled with rotting carcasses and white buffalo bones and destroyed the last hopes of the Plaines people.
  • The Native Americans made plans for war.
the attack on adobe walls
The Attack on Adobe Walls
  • In June 1874 Quanah Parker led several hundred warriors from 5 Native American nations in an attack on a buffalo hunters’ camp at Adobe Walls.
  • The Texas settlers defended the camp with the help of buffalo guns designed to fire many shots in a short time.
  • Frustrated by the failure to take Adobe Walls, the Native Americans increased their attacks on West Texas settlements.
  • Many Native Americans on the reservations left to join the fighting.
  • The fighting spread across 5 states, killing 190 Anglos over the next 2 months.
the red river campaign
The Red River Campaign
  • After the Native American uprising, President Grant put the army in charge of Native American affairs in West Texas.
  • An army of about 3,000 troops moved in on the camps from five different directions.
  • The first battle of what became known as the Red River campaign was fought in August 1874.
  • The Texas Rangers also fought in the West.
the battle of palo duro canyon
The Battle of Palo Duro Canyon
  • The Battle of Palo Duro Canyon, on September 28, 1874, was the most decisive battle of the Red River campaign.
  • The canyon as a favorite campground of many Plains group.
  • Colonel Mackenzie and the Fourth Cavalry set fire to the villages there.
  • In the conflict few live were lost, but the troops captured 1,424 horses and mule.
  • Without food, horses and shelter, the Native Americans could not survive long.
the battle of palo duro canyon1
The Battle of Palo Duro Canyon
  • By November most of the Native American bands were making their way to the reservations.
  • The last remaining Comanche bands, the Kwahadies, surrendered in June 1875- among them was Quanah Parker.
  • Quanah Parker continued to represent his people.
  • He worked as a mediator to settle disputes among nations and fought for Native American rights.