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Federal Aviation Administration. Runway Incursion Avoidance. Presented to: By: Date:. DPEs and Flight Instructors >. FAASTeam. February, 2013. Our Discussion Plan. Problem Definition And Specifically, GA Statistics Possible Causes Approach to Fixing Refer to PTSs Use Scenarios

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Runway incursion avoidance

Federal Aviation

Administration

Runway Incursion Avoidance

Presented to:

By:

Date:

DPEs and Flight Instructors>

FAASTeam

February, 2013


Our discussion plan
Our Discussion Plan

  • Problem Definition

    • And Specifically, GA Statistics

  • Possible Causes

  • Approach to Fixing

    • Refer to PTSs

    • Use Scenarios

  • Conclusions


Runway incursion
Runway Incursion

  • Any occurrence at an aerodrome involving the incorrect presence of an aircraft vehicle or person on the protected area of a surface designated for the landing and take off of aircraft”. (ICAO Doc 4444 - PANS-ATM)


Runway incursion categories
Runway Incursion Categories

  • A - Serious Incident – Actual Collision or Collision Narrowly Avoided

  • B – Separation Decreases- Potential for Collision

  • C – Ample Time and/or Distance to Avoid Collision

  • D – Runway Incursion but No Immediate Safety Consequence


Runway incursion classifications
Runway Incursion Classifications

  • Operational Incident (OI)

  • Pilot Deviation (PD)

  • Vehicle Pedestrian Deviation (V/PD)


Preliminary runway incursions fy 2012 statistics
Preliminary Runway IncursionsFY 2012 Statistics

  • Nationwide Totals:

  • Pilot Deviation Totals: 723 RIs

  • Pilot Deviations General Aviation: 588 (81.33%)  

  • Pilot Deviations (GA) by Category:


Examples of pilot deviations
EXAMPLES OF PILOT DEVIATIONS

  • Aircraft Crosses Runway Hold Short Lines Without Clearance

  • Aircraft Enters Runway During a Taxi Operation

  • Aircraft Makes a Takeoff or Landing on the Wrong Runway

  • Aircraft Makes a Takeoff or landing Without Clearance


What are the causes
WHAT ARE THE CAUSES?

  • Cockpit Distractions

  • Misunderstandings

  • Poor Communications

  • Inadequate Cockpit Workload Management (SOPs)


How can dpes and cfis help
HOW CAN DPEs and CFIs HELP?

  • DPEs conscientiously test the material in Area of Operation ll Task F. Runway Incursion Avoidance. You are the Gatekeeper

  • CFIs must provide comprehensive training on Runway Incursion Avoidance emphasizing the Human Factors that contribute to errors

  • Special Attention for pilots who are trained and fly at non towered airports

  • Consider the use of “Scenarios” as Training and Testing Tools


Private commercial pilot pts
PRIVATE & COMMERCIAL PILOT PTS

  • Area of Operation ll: Preflight Procedures

  • Task F: Runway Incursion Avoidance

  • “To determine that the applicant exhibits knowledge of the elements of Runway Incursion Avoidance by…”

  • 17 Elements that call for: “Exhibiting”, “Utilizing”, “Knowing”, “Conducting”

    How Do We Teach this?How Do We Test?

    Scenarios?


Distinct challenges and requirements during taxi ops
Distinct Challenges and Requirements During Taxi Ops

  •  Element 1 in Task F.

    • Includes:

      • Vigilance

      • Communications

      • Compliance with ATC Instructions

      • Knowledge of Airport Layout

      • Taxi Route


Procedures for appropriate cockpit activities during taxi
Procedures for Appropriate Cockpit Activities During Taxi

  • Element 2 in Task F.

    • Includes:

      • Taxi Route Planning

      • Briefing Location of Hot Spots

      • Communicating and Coordinating With ATC

      • Heads Up During Taxi

      • Observing and Interpreting Airport Signs and Markings


Planning taxi operations
Planning Taxi Operations

  • Study and Check

    • Airport Diagram for Departure and Arrival Airports of the Planned Flight

    • NOTAMs, Ground and Air Frequencies

    • Anticipate Taxi Route but Do Not Assume You will Receive It

  • Perform Cockpit Tasks Prior to Taxi

  • Students should advise ATC “Student Pilot” and/or Request Progressive Taxi Instructions

  • Write Down Taxi Instructions


Taxi procedures
TAXI PROCEDURES

  • Maintain Awareness of your Position and Limit of Taxi Instruction

    • Stay FOCUSED!

    • Know the Signs, Markings, and Airport Lighting

  • Do not use Excessive Taxi Speed

  • Heads Up and Listen

  • Maintain Sterile Cockpit - Advise Passengers and Co Pilots


Communications
Communications

  • Do Not Fly With Defective Radios

  • Teach and Test proper Phraseology

  • Read Back Instructions Using Call Sign – Hold Short Instructions and Runway Assignments

  • Stay “In the Game”

    • Use Caution for Similar Call Signs

    • Beware of Answering for Another Aircraft

    • Monitor ATC Communications With Other Aircraft

  • If Unsure of a Communication, Obtain Clarification


Discuss scenarios
Discuss Scenarios

  • 3 Years of Category C RIs Data

    • For Airports with 2 or More RIs

    • Total of 282 Cat C RIs

    • 46 at 4 CONUS Airports

    • Over 300 Towered CONUS Airports

    • 1% of Airports Had 12% of Cat C RIs

  • 4 Challenging Environments for Discussion

    • ADS, DVT, NEW, PRC


Ads 7 cat cs in 3 years
ADS: 7 Cat Cs in 3 Years

HS 1 thru 8: Twy A, J, H, G, F, E, D, C and Rwy 15-33. Holding Position Markings have

been moved back to the edge of Twy A.

HS 9 Twy A and Rwy End 33. Holding Position Markings have

been moved back to the edge of Twy A prior to turn off

parallel twy.


Dvt 18 cat cs in 3 years
DVT: 18 Cat Cs in 3 Years

PHOENIX, AZ

PHOENIX DEER VALLEY (DVT)

HS 1 Inadvertent Rwy 07R-25L crossings from Twy B5.

HS 2 Inadvertent Rwy 07R-25L crossings from Twy B9.


New 10 cat cs in 3 years
NEW: 10 Cat Cs in 3 Years

HS 1 Twy F south of Rwy 09-27.

HS 2 Twy F at Apch end Rwy 27.

HS 3 Twy B at Rwy 36L.


Prc 11 cat cs in 3 years
PRC: 11 Cat Cs in 3 Years

HS 1 Not visible from the twr.

HS 2 Complex int.

HS 3 Complex int.

HS 4 Not visible from the twr.

HS 5 Frequent rwy crossings.


What have we learned together
What Have We Learned Together?

  • These 4 Airports Have Demonstrable Challenges

    • Most Places We Go, Don’t

  • What We Have Learned Here Can and Should Be Applied

    • Where Ever We Go

    • When We Teach

    • When We Evaluate

  • Comments?


In conclusion
In Conclusion

  • Runway Incursion and Surface Incidents Represent a Significant Threat to Aviation Safety

  • General Aviation Pilot Deviations Account for the Greatest Percentage of Reported Events

  • Human Factors are Frequently Cited in Investigative Reports


In conclusion1
In Conclusion

  • Many of the Errors Discovered Reveal Deficiencies in Primary Flight Training and/or Maintaining GA Pilot Currency and Proficiency

  • The FAA is Asking for a Commitment From our CFIs and DPEs to Improve the Training and Testing Standards which will Reduce the Potential for Accidents and Incidents


Resources
Resources

  • Private and Commercial Pilot Practical Test Standards

  • The Pilots Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge

  • The Airplane Flying Handbook


Resources continued
Resources continued

  • AC 91-73B Parts 91 and 135 Single Pilot Flight Schools Procedures During Taxi Operations

  • AC150-5340-18 Standards For Airport Signs Systems

  • Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM)


Resources continued1
Resources continued

  • For Pilot, Controller, and Vehicle Operator airport surface operational resources to include but not limited to best practices and animated surface events go to >

    • www.faa.gov/go/runwaysafety

  • www.faasafety.gov



Objective
Objective

  • Using the Private and Commercial Pilot Practical Test Standards as reference, the objective of this presentation is to familiarize DPEs and CFIs with runway incursion data and to present and discuss instructional and testing techniques intended to improve general aviation pilot performance and reduce future aviation accidents and incidents.


Planning taxi operations continued
Planning Taxi Operations continued

  • Perform Cockpit Tasks Prior to Taxi

  • Students should advise ATC “Student Pilot” and/or Request Progressive Taxi Instructions

  • Write Down Taxi Instructions


Taxi procedures continued
TAXI PROCEDURES continued

  • Be Aware of Signs, Markings, and Airport Lighting

  • Maintain Awareness of your Position and Limit of Taxi Instruction

  • Maintain Sterile Cockpit - Advise Passengers and Co Pilots


Communications1
Communications

  • Monitor ATC Communications With Other Aircraft

  • If Unsure of a Communication, Obtain Clarification

  • Do Not Fly With Defective Radios


Situational awareness sa
Situational Awareness (SA)

  • The accurate perception and understanding of all the factors and conditions within the four fundamental risk elements that affect safety before, during, and after the flight (FAA-H-8083-25)

  • Four Risk Elements:

    • Pilot

    • Airplane

    • enVironment

    • External pressures


Situational awareness sa during surface operations
Situational Awareness (SA) During Surface Operations

  • Factors that Enhance SA

    • Preflight Planning and Preparedness

    • Proper Use of a Surface Chart

    • Listening to Ground Frequency

    • Anticipation Projection


Situational awareness sa during surface operations1
Situational Awareness (SA) During Surface Operations

  • Factors that Degrade SA

    • Being in a Rush

    • Multi Tasking

    • Obstructions to Vision and Hearing

    • Losing Awareness of Position


Dpes and cfis can help reduce runway incursions
DPEs and CFIs Can Help Reduce Runway Incursions

  • Provide Adequate Training on Surface Operations

  • Emphasize Human Factors

  • Set a Good Example: Fly Like You Teach

  • Maintain High Standards For General Aviation