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Immigration and Anti-Catholicism. 1800 - 1920. Immigration. Statistics on Catholics in U.S.:. By 1800 - 40,000 By 1820 - 195,000 By 1850 - 1½ million By 1860 - 3 million By 1820 - 18 million The increase is almost entirely due to immigration. French. 1790 – 1800

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statistics on catholics in u s
Statistics on Catholics in U.S.:
  • By 1800 - 40,000
  • By 1820 - 195,000
  • By 1850 - 1½ million
  • By 1860 - 3 million
  • By 1820 - 18 million

The increase is almost entirely due to immigration

french
French
  • 1790 – 1800
  • Caused by French Revolution
  • Influences:
    • Highly authoritarian
    • Love of ritual
    • Devotion to Blessed Virgin
  • Early 19th century, majority of bishops were French immigrants
slide5

Bishop DuBourg of St. Louis

Bishop Flaget of Bardstown

Bishop Lamy of

Santa Fe

Bishop Machebeuf of Denver

german
German
  • 1820 – 1920
  • Caused by search for economic opportunity and, after 1870, persecution of Catholics in Germany
  • Mostly farmers and tradesmen
  • Settled in “German Triangle” between Cincinnati, St. Louis and Milwaukee
slide7
Influences:
    • Involved in their local parishes
    • Catholic schools

The first Catholics to settle in Ohio were German immigrants who settled near Somerset

irish
Irish
  • 1820 – 1900
  • Came fleeing persecution in Ireland, famine, and looking for economic opportunity
  • Settled in large cities of East Coast and Great Lakes
  • Mostly under 25, illiterate, unmarried
slide9
Influences:
    • Importance of education
    • Stress religious vocations in their children
    • Rely on clergy – the priest is the most important person in the parish

By 1900:

    • 50% of all Catholics are Irish
    • 65% of clergy are Irish
    • 70% of bishops are Irish
hispanics
Hispanics
  • U.S. conquered 1/3 of Mexico in 1848 – California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Colorado
  • 80,000 Hispanic Catholics became part of the U.S.
  • Immigration has increased the number – Hispanics are nearly 25% of American Catholics
slide11

Influences:

  • Popular devotions
  • Importance of home-based religious traditions
  • Our Lady of Guadalupe – patroness of the Americas
historic roots of anti catholicism
Historic Roots of Anti-Catholicism
  • English attitudes towards Catholics
  • Feeling that Catholics are not loyal to the government because of their allegiance to the pope
  • Protestant beliefs that Catholicism is not a Biblical religion because of its reliance on papal teachings, its veneration of Mary and saints, and rituals
nativism part 1
Nativism(Part 1)
  • 1820 – 1846
  • Caused by –
    • Increased immigration
    • The rise of Protestant Revivalism
    • An economic downturn and the fact that immigrants were willing to work for lower wages
    • Question of teaching religion in public schools
slide15
1830, magazine “The Protestant” founded to “inculcate Gospel doctrines against Romish corruptions.”
  • 1834 burning of Ursuline convent and school in Charlestown, Mass.
  • 1836 publication of “The Awful Disclosures of Maria Monk” – a supposed memoir of life in a convent in Montreal
philadelphia riots
Philadelphia Riots
  • Over the issue of allowing Catholic students to use the Catholic Douay-Rheims Bible in religion class in public schools
  • Led to anti-Catholic riots during which several churches were burned and 14 people died
nativism part 2
Nativism(Part 2)
  • 1854 – 1860
  • “Know Nothing Party” established
    • Only “native born” Protestant Americans of European ancestry should be allowed to be citizens
    • Attempted to prevent Catholic citizens from voting
      • “Bloody Monday” – Louisville, 1855
slide19

Became majority in Congress – able to pass anti-Catholic laws (all of which were overturned in the courts)

  • Died out by 1860 because they had no stand on the slavery issue

Idealized portrait of a member of the Know Nothing Party

slide20
“I have been educated to enmity toward everything that is Catholic; sometimes, in consequence of this, I find it easier to discover Catholic faults than Catholic merits.”

Mark Twain

nativism part 3
Nativism(Part 3)
  • 1887 – 1898
  • Main Issue: Catholic Schools
    • Belief that Catholic education is subversive and students are being taught to be loyal to the pope rather than good American citizens
    • Fear that Catholics will overthrow the government and replace it with a theocracy, getting rid of the Bill of Rights
slide22
Immigration is still an issue, especially as more immigrants from Eastern Europe are entering the country
  • Important spokesperson – political cartoonist Thomas Nast
the ku klux klan
The Ku Klux Klan
  • 1920s
  • See themselves as protecting America for white, Protestant Americans against Blacks, Jews, Catholics and Mexicans
slide29

"I am not the Catholic candidate for President. I am the Democratic Party's candidate for President who also happens to be a Catholic. I do not speak for my Church on public matters — and the Church does not speak for me.“ Kennedy to the Greater Houston Ministerial Assc. In 1960

anti catholicism today
Anti-Catholicism Today
  • Little organized anti-Catholicism
  • A few Fundamentalist Christian groups – especially Jack Chick Publications
  • Anti-Catholic attitudes are still fairly common – it has been called “the last acceptable prejudice” recently
  • The clergy pedophilia cover-up brought a lot of those attitudes out