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Data Structure and c. K.S.Prabhu Lecturer All Deaf Educational Technology. C Tokens. C Tokens. Keywords. It has 32 keywords. #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { char yn; clrscr(); do {. puts("enter y/n(yes/no)"); yn=getchar(); fflush(stdin); if(yn!='y'&&yn!='n')

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data structure and c

Data Structure and c

K.S.Prabhu

Lecturer

All Deaf Educational Technology

keywords
Keywords
  • It has 32 keywords.
slide7
#include

#include

void main()

{

char yn;

clrscr();

do

{

puts("enter y/n(yes/no)");

yn=getchar();

fflush(stdin);

if(yn!='y'&&yn!='n')

puts("invalid input");

}

while(yn!='y'&&yn!='n'); getch();

constants
Constants
  • A constant is an entity that doesn't change during the execution of a program.
  • Followings are the different types of constants.
  • Real constant
  • Integer Constant
  • Character Constant
  • String Constant
1 real constant
1. Real Constant :
  • It must have at least one digit.
  • It must have a decimal point which may be positive or negative.
  • Use of blank space and comma is not allowed between real constants.
  • Example:
  • +194.143, -416.41
real constant
Real Constant
  • It must have at least one digit.
  • It must have a decimal point which may be positive or negative.
  • Use of blank space and comma is not allowed between real constants.
  • Example:+194.143, -416.41
integer constant
Integer Constant
  • It must have at least one digit.
  • It should not contain a decimal place.
  • It can be positive or negative.
  • Use of blank space and comma is not allowed between real constants.
  • Example:
  • 1990, 194, -394
character constant
Character Constant
  • It is a single alphabet or a digit or a special symbol enclosed in a single quote.
  • Maximum length of a character constant is 1.
  • Example:'T', '9', '$'
string constant
String Constant
  • It is collection of characters enclosed in double quotes.
  • It may contain letters, digits, special characters and blank space.
  • Example:“I love Deaf“

“ All Deaf Educational Technology”

identifier
Identifier
  • An identifier is used for any variable, function, data definition, etc.
  • In the C programming language, an identifier is a combination of alphanumeric characters.
  • An underline and the remaining being any letter of the alphabet, any numeric digit, or the underline.
string
String
  • Strings in C are represented by arrays of characters.
  • The end of the string is marked with a special character, the null character, which is simply the character with the value 0.
  • The null character has no relation except in name to the null pointer.

char string[15] = "Hello world!";

sample code program
Sample code Program

#include

#include

void main()

{

char in_str[21];

clrscr();

puts("Enter a string to a maximum of 20 characters");

getch();

}

output

Enter a string to a maximum of 20 characters

Youth

variables
Variables
  • It is date name used date value called by valuables.
  • It is a data name which is used to store data and may change during program execution.
  • It is opposite to constant.
slide19
Variable name is a name given to memory cells location of a computer where data is stored.

Syntax:

{data types}{Variables name}=[value]

sample code program1
Sample code Program

Example:

Int count index;

Float area price;

Chal class types;

Example of main program:-

Main

{

Int a,b,c,=10;

Char x;

Float num;

local variables
Local variables
  • These variables only exist inside the specific function that creates them.
  • They are unknown to other functions and to the main program.
  • As such, they are normally implemented using a stack.
slide23
Example:
  • {
  • Int a, b, c, =10; local variable
  • Char x;
  • Float num;
  • }
global variables
Global variables
  • These variables can be accessed by any function comprising the program.
  • They are implemented by associating memory locations with variable names.
slide25
Example:
  • {Int a, b, c, =[10,20,30] ; Global variable
  • Chal x;
  • Float
  • } (or)
  • {Int a = [10]
  • Int b = [20]
  • Int c = [30]
  • Chal [15]
  • Float
  • }
example of global variable
Example of Global Variable

Example:

{

Int a, b, c, =[10,20,30] ; Char x;

Float num;

}

{

Int a = [10];

Int b = [20];

Int c = [30];

Char[15];

Float num;

}

typedef statement
TYPEDEF STATEMENT
  • typedef is a keyword in the C and C++ programming languages.
  • The purpose of typedef is to assign alternative names to existing types.
  • types declared with typedef end with ( '_t' )
  • (e.g., size_t, time_t)

Syntax;-

  • Typedef exp1, exp2,….., expn
slide28
All data types in between typedef and identifier can now be referred to by the identifier alone The statement.

typedef structtnode *Treeptr;

typedef structtnode

{

int count;

structtnode *left;

structtnode *right;

} Treenode;

enumerated datatypes
Enumerated DataTypes
  • The data type enum allows used identifier as value
  • Syntax:
  • Enum identifier {Element} Element 1, Element 2…..to Element n;
example of main program
Example of main program
  • Enum days {sun, mon, tue, wed, thu, fir, sat}
  • Enum color{red, blue, orange, pink, green,}
  • Enum holiday{Sunday, Saturday}
  • Enum rainbow {red, blue, orange, yellow, green,}
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