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UN Resolution 1325 A Mask or Movement? . The Role of Women Mediators in Conflict Prevention and Peacebuilding Tyra L. Brown NOVA Southeastern University Marist College 21 st Annual Women & Security Conference October 20, 2012.

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un resolution 1325 a mask or movement

UN Resolution 1325A Mask or Movement?

The Role of Women Mediators in Conflict Prevention and Peacebuilding

Tyra L. Brown

NOVA Southeastern University

Marist College

21st Annual Women & Security Conference

October 20, 2012

the imperative you can t shake hands with a clenched fist indira gandhi
The imperative You can't shake hands with a clenched fist. ~ Indira Gandhi
  • The impact of war and violent conflict is disproportionately more severe on women.
  • As the nature of war changes, women are increasingly targeted as weapons of psychological warfare and suffer sexual violence and abuses such as
        • rape
        • forced prostitution
        • indecent assault
        • sexual violence is now recognized as a war crime
  • The exclusion of women in peace processes continues to enforce this system of violence.
  • The UN Security Council passed resolution 1325 in October 2000 (UNSCR 1325) but 12 years later its utility is questioned.
slide3

Background“For generations, women have served as peace educators, both in their families and in their societies. They have proved instrumental in building bridges rather than walls.” ~ Former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan

  • UNSCR 1325 unanimously adopted October 2000
    • protection of the human rights of women and girls during times of conflict
    • prevention of gender-based violence (GBV)
    • equal participation of women in peace building and reconstruction
  • 2005 - UN Security Council calls for member states to implement 1325 through National Action Plans (NAPs)
  • 2010 – UN Security Council proposed “…a strategic framework to guide the implementation of the resolution in the next decade.”
  • 2011 – UN General Assembly created UN Women
  • 2011 – Saudi Arabia elected to UN Women Executive Board with representation from 41 countries
  • Initial annual operating budget approx. $500 million
unscr 1325 to date
UNSCR 1325 - To Date
  • 35 countries have adopted National Action Plans
  • Lack of awareness of the resolution, especially in conflict affected regions
  • Gaps between HMG policy and practice – lack of effective implementation, esp. of key women, peace and security policies at the local level
  • Lack of financial resources
  • Gender not seen as a priority in context of security and peacebuilding
  • Lack of gender mainstreaming and gender training
the mask challenges
The Mask: challenges
  • UN principle of state sovereignty
  • Power and gender inequality within the UN
  • Power imbalances within countries and among UN member countries
  • The international community discusses the advancement of women in terms of the acquisition and implementation of rights particular to women.
  • Basic elements contributing to the oppression of women remain obscured
the movement progress opportunities
The movement: progress & Opportunities
  • Within the UN and throughout the international NGO community, there continues to be an emphasis on increasing the role of women in peace and security.
  • To truly level the playing field for women to have authoritative positions and wide participation in peacekeeping; not just brought to the table but able to change the table.
  • UN and UN Women have dedicated resources to training and development of women in negotiation, mediation and peacekeeping operations.
slide7

The road ahead“Until the gendered nature of the human rights system itself is recognized and transformed, no real progress for women can be achieved” ~ Hilary Charlesworth

  • “We cannot solve the problems of our current pattern of thought using our current pattern of thought.” ~ Einstein
  • The participation of women is critical to the success of any peacebuilding process – if half the population is excluded or faces discrimination, peace will be impossible to achieve
  • When women are meaningfully involved in peace processes, post-conflict planning and the security sector, these processes have been bolstered and strengthened. Women have been able to mediate internally, ensure the agenda reflects the needs of the whole of society, and bring different perspectives to peacebuilding
gender action for peace security http www gaps uk org
Gender Action for Peace & Security http://www.gaps-uk.org

Tyra L. Brown

NOVA Southeastern University

Department of Conflict Resolution & Analysis

Doctoral Program, 3rd Year

www.tyrabrown.info

The Vicious Cycle of Exclusion

references
References

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CARE International UK. (2012). Peacebuilding with Impact: Defining Theories of Change. London: Author.

Bem, S. L. (1993). The lenses of gender: Transforming the debate on sexual inequality. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Charlesworth, H. (1999). Human Rights as Men’s Rights. In C. Gould (Ed.), Gender: Key Concepts in Critical Theory. (pp. 384 - 393). New York: Humanity Books.

Chodorow, N.J. (1999). Gender, Relation, and Difference in Psychoanalytic Perspective. In C. Gould (Ed.), Gender: Key Concepts in Critical Theory(pp. 25-40). New York: Humanity Books.

Gould, C. (1999). Human Rights as Men’s Rights. In C. Gould (Ed.), Gender: Key

Concepts in Critical Theory. (pp. 384 - 393). New York: Humanity Books.

Honor killing. (n.d.). WordNet® 3.0. Retrieved July 14, 2012, from Dictionary.com

website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/honor killing

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Savage, Lisa (2012, July). War No More: What Afghan Women are Yelling to the Global Elite. Alternet. Retrieved from http://www.alternet.org/story/156130/war_no_more_what_afghan_women_are_yelling_to_the_global_elite_?page=entire

The Guardian Online (2012). Afghan woman accused of adultery shot dead in public. Retrieved July 14, 2012 from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/jul/08/afghan-woman-accused-adultery-shot-dead

The Guardian Online (2012). UK fund to prevent global conflict fails to make major impact. Retrieved July 15, 2012 from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/2012/jul/13/uk-fund-prevent-conflict-impact

Weeks, D. (1992). The eight essential steps to conflict resolution: preserving

relationships at work, at home, and in the community. Los Angeles: Tarcher.

Weiss, T.G., & Daws, S. (Eds.). (1999). The Oxford Handbook on the United Nations.

New York: Oxford University Press.

Wilson, E. O. & Horgan, J. (2012, June). Is War Inevitable? Discover, pp. 52-57.

http://www.un.org/events/res_1325e.pdf

slide10
Country List of UNSCR 1325 NAPs(SOURCE: http://www.peacewomen.org/pages/about-1325/national-action-plans-naps)
  • The Australian National Action Plan on UNSCR 1325 was launched in March 2012.
  • The Austrian National Action Plan on Implementing UNSCR 1325 was released on 8 August 2007.
  • The Belgian National Action Plan on the implementation of UNSCR 1325 was launched on 8 May 2009.
  • The Bosnian-Herzegovinian National Action Plan for the Implementation of the UNSCR 1325 was launched in July 2010.
  • The Canadian Action Plan for the Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolutions on Women, Peace and Security was launched in October 2010.
  • The Chilian National Action Plan for the Implementation of the UNSCR 1325 was launched on 3 August 2009.
  • The Cote D'Ivoire National Action Plan for the Implementation of UNSCR 1325 was launched in January 2007.
  • The Croatian National Action Plan for the Implementation of UNSCR 1325 was adopted in 2011.
  • The Danish Action Plan for the Implementation of UNSCR 1325 was adopted in June 2005, and revised in 2008.
  • The DRC National Action Plan for the implementation of the UNSCR 1325 was launched in June 2010.
  • The Estonian Action Plan for the Implementation of UNSCR 1325 was released in November 2010.
  • The Finnish National Action Plan for the Implementation of UNSCR 1325 was launched on 19 September 2008.
  • The French National Action Plan on UNSCR 1325 Women, Peace & Security was launched in November 2010.
  • The Georgian National Action Plan on UN SCR 1325 was adopted in December 2011.
  • The Guinean National Action Plan on UNSCR 1325 was adopted as of July 2011.
  • Guinea-Bissau adopted its National Action Plan on UNSCR 1325 and Implementation Matrix as of July 2011.
  • The Icelandic government launched its National Plan of Action for the Implementation of UNSCR 1325 on 8 March 2008.
  • Ireland's National Action Plan on UNSCR was revealed on the 25th of November 2011
  • Italy launched its National Plan of Action for the Implementation of UNSCR 1325 on 23 December 2010.
  • The Liberia National Action Plan for the Implementation of UNSCR 1325 was launched on 8 March 2009.
  • The Nepalese National Action Plan for the Implementation of UNSCR 1325 was launched in October 2010.
  • The Netherlands launched their National Action Plan for the Implementation of UNSCR 1325. A second National Action Plan was launched in December 2011 for the period of 2012-2015.
  • The Norwegian Government Action Plan for the Implementation of UNSCR was released in March 2006, followed by the NAP Strategic Plan for 2011 -2013.
  • The Philippine National Action Plan for the Implementation of UNSCR 1325 and 1820 was launched in March 2010.
  • The Portuguese National Action Plan for the Implementation of UNSCR 1325 was released in August 2009.
  • The Rwandan National Action Plan for the Implementation of the UNSCR 1325 was launched in May 2010.
  • Senegal adopted its National Action Plan for the Implementation of the UNSCR 1325 in May 2011.
  • The Serbian National Action Plan for the Implementation of the UNSCR 1325 was launched in 2011.
  • The Sierra Leone National Action Plan for the Implementation of UNSCR 1325 was launched in March 2010.
  • The Slovenian National Action Plan for the Implementation of UNSCR 1325 was released as of July 2011.
  • The Spanish National Action Plan for the Implementation of the UNSCR 1325 was released in November 2007.
  • The Swedish National Action Plan to implement UNSCR 1325 was adopted in October 2006, and revised in 2009.
  • The Swiss National Action Plan for the implementation of UNSCR 1325 was launched in February 2007, and revised in October 2010.
  • The Uganda Action Plan on UNSCR 1325 & 1820 and the Goma Declaration was released in December 2008.
  • The United Kingdom National Action Plan on UNSCR 1325 Women, Peace & Security was launched in November 2011. A revised National Action Plan was launched in February 2012.
  • The U.S. National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security was launched in December 2011.