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Transforming National Security Space Payloads

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Transforming National Security Space Payloads

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  1. Transforming National Security Space Payloads VINCENT J. DENO, 1Lt, USAF Lead, Space Operations Demonstrations EDWARD “NED” JONES, 2Lt, USAF Space Support Developmental Engineer T. RYAN SPACE, Capt, USAF Chief, Advanced Concept Demonstrations

  2. Purpose • Rationale for responsive space • Changing face of warfare in information age • Asymmetric and adaptive enemy • Network Centric Warfare (NCW) • Responsive space attributes/elements to enable tactical capabilities and effects • Multiple approaches to responsive space • Responsive lift, payload integration and initialization • Responsive spacecraft payload reconfiguration • Responsive maneuver or optimization • Tactical satellite (TacSat) mission opportunities * See associated paper for references

  3. Increasing Global Operations * Courtesy of Office of Force Transformation (OFT)

  4. Network Centric Information Advantage 61 el. Theater 8GHz MBR 484 element RPA 44/20 256 element TPA 169 el. 7GHz MBT Network Centric Warfighting Concepts Network Centric Warfare Information Age Theory of War Information “Richness” • Content • Accuracy • Timeliness • Relevance . . Platform Centric Warfighting Concepts • Local • Regional • Global Information “Reach” * Courtesy of Office of Force Transformation (OFT)

  5. Responsive SpaceA Component of the Joint Force • Attributes of Responsive Space • Tailorable payload and coverage for emergent operational needs (address niches) • Low cost / risk tolerant • Global, persistent/prompt, access to denied areas • Tactical control of payload, direct-to-theater, cross-platform missions • Enables global strike within 2 hrs from an alert posture against wide array of anti-access and hardened targets without need to forward deploy • Allows critical warfighting capabilities to be replaced in the event of Red Force attack • Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) • Precision Navigation & Timing (PNT) • Communications • Augment the operational warfighter’s ability to conduct time-sensitive operations (Targeting/BDA) Tactical Satellite (TacSat) and microsat initiatives are key components of Operationally Responsive Space

  6. Tactical Space Vision

  7. Responsive Space Objective Timelines Development Deployment Operations Months Seconds • Development: Time required to design, build, and test spacecraft hardware • Currently 2 to 10+ years • To counter adversary’s changing tactics and adaptations, new/niche warfighter capabilities must be developed within 6-9 months • Deployment: Time required to integrate, launch, and deliver space systems • Currently 3 to 12+ months • To support responsive operations, space-based assets must be in place and ready for operation within hours of a request for support • Operate: Time required to deliver products/effects • Current timelines depend on system/mission, typically hours/days • To support a tactical user, space system operations must respond in timelines consistent with battlefield operations (continuous/seconds)

  8. The Risk Cycle

  9. The Risk Cycle

  10. Breaking the Risk Cycle

  11. Breaking the Risk Cycle Paradigm Shift • Small Empowered Teams • Fixed Cost/Secure Funding • Performance as a Dependent Variable • Compressed Schedule • Rapid Prototyping & Development • Unproven/Advanced Technologies • Prudent Analysis & Testing Cost-Commensurate Risk Tolerant Rapid Development

  12. TacSat Initiative Approach

  13. One Concept: Magic Orbit • Responsive Wartime deployment • Continuous 24/7 rolling start service during major conflicts • Fast burn to inject into “Magic Orbit”(2 hrs deployment) • Advantages of Magic Orbit for Tactical User • Persistence – Small constellation results in near 24/7 coverage over theater • Higher performance - Lower altitude • Predictable coverage - Repeating ground track

  14. Magic Orbit RF (MORF) Special Forces & Coalition Comm Multi-Band Transponders Coalition comm awareness Scheduled communications Iridium augmentation Aircraft position awareness Capabilities • Multi-band receivers • UHF Military LOS, MSS • L/S-band • MSS: Iridium, Globalstar, Thuraya, ICO • Aircraft position reporting • SHF feeder link to GIG-BE regional node • Option: downlink transmitter • 5MHz DoD band or full Iridium band GIG-BE Regional Node

  15. BLUE MAJIC Top Level Theater Architecture CONUS Reachback Provided by Existing GEO Comsats Linked to MAJIC Satellites GPS Satellites Provides Position Information Microsats Achieve Highly Elliptical (Magic) Orbit w/Low Cost LV (3-5 Satellites Provide 24/7 Theater Coverage) Information System: Ground Troops outfitted with Personal Data Transmitters (PDTs) in Theater Xmit GPS Location and Identity to MAJIC Microsats, in Turn to CAOC Communication System: MAJIC Microsats in Magic Orbits Offer Comm Architecture to the Field in Real Time, w/GEO Reachback Combined Air Ops Center (CAOC) In Theater VMGS Terminal Connects Theater w/CONUS PDTs RASCAL/FALCON Provide Launch On- Demand Directly to Theater Commander Comm Terminals MAJIC Provides Theater Users & Commanders with Pre-Deployed Troop Asset Location and Comm Access

  16. TacSat-II “RoadRunner”

  17. Target Detection and IDHyper-Spectral Imaging (HSI) Counter-Camouflage Counter-Deception CBRNE Detection • In JEFX, real time HSI targeting data uploaded to F-15 cockpit • HSI identified bare, camouflaged, and decoy targets • Bare and camouflaged targets were under trees and not seen by F-15 FLIRs

  18. FALCON Demo Common Aero Vehicle Capabilities enabled by responsive spacelift • Strike targets anywhere from CONUS in 120 minutes or less. • Increased warfighting capability against hard and deeply buried targets. • Minimizes over flight and landing issues and concerns. • Avoids risk to flight crews • Relatively invulnerable to anti-access threats. • Cost competitive with other platforms Approx. Performance Requirements • Precision strike • Variety of conventional payloads • In-flight target updates • Worldwide, all weather range Responds to DPG and NPR requirements for long-range prompt precision strike and the evolution of systems to overcome anti-access technologies and tactics Only prompt conventional means to strike fleeting targets from outside theater

  19. Conclusion • Transformational payloads provide direct support to the tactical warfighter • Changes to current way of doing business is required to meet development, deployment, and operation timelines • Collaboration of responsive launch and payload programs will ensure US relevancy in space • TacSat initiative and microsats are critical elements of the Operationally Responsive Space vision