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讲 座 提 纲. 1 什么是分子育种 2 历史回顾 3 全基因组策略 4 基因型鉴定 5 表现型鉴定 6 环境 型鉴定 ( etyping ) 7 标记 - 性状关联分析 8 标记 辅助 选择 9 决策支撑系统 10 展望. Future Prospects. Large-scale resequencing (whole genome and target regions) Stage one: 100 core maize lines (2010) … …

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slide1

讲 座 提 纲

1 什么是分子育种

2 历史回顾

3 全基因组策略

4 基因型鉴定

5 表现型鉴定

6 环境型鉴定 (etyping)

7 标记-性状关联分析

8 标记辅助选择

9 决策支撑系统

10 展望

slide2

Future Prospects

Large-scale resequencing (whole genome and target regions)

Stage one: 100 core maize lines (2010)

… …

Stage N: all maize lines (201X)

Multi-location precision phenotypingand etyping

Whole genome association studies (GWAS) for gene and allele discovery and functional analysis

Genomewide selection for complex and multiple traits

slide3

Whole Genome Strategies for a New Breeding Target

Increased Food and Ecosystem Security via Perennial Grains

J. D. Glover, J. P. Reganold, L. W. Bell, J. Borevitz, E. C. Brummer, E. S. Buckler, C. M. Cox, T. S. Cox, T. E. Crews, S. W. Culman, L. R. DeHaan, D. Eriksson, B. S. Gill, J. Holland, F. Hu, B. S. Hulke, A. M. H. Ibrahim, W. Jackson, S. S. Jones, S. C. Murray, A. H. Paterson, E. Ploschuk, E. J. Sacks, S. Snapp, D. Tao, D. L. Van Tassel, L. J. Wade, D. L. Wyse, Y. Xu

Perennial grains hold promise, especially for marginal landscapes or with limited resources where annual versions struggle.

SCIENCE (2010) 328: 1368-1369

slide5

Why Is It Possible Now

Large-size populations

High density molecular markers

Break the tight linkage between perenniality and wild traits

Bring complex traits together more efficiently than ever

Rice as an example for grains

Dr. Fengyi Hu at Yunnan AAS, China

Maize as an example for forages

Prof. Tingzhao Rong and his group at SCAU, China

slide6

Bottlenecks in Marker-Assisted Molecular Breeding

  • Need of integrated plant breeding platforms
  • Establishment of molecular breeding networks
  • Improved precision phenotyping and etyping systems
  • Effective and efficient information management and analysis
  • Complexity of crops with polyploidy chromosomes and high genetic diversity

育种的集成化、规模化、 程序化

slide7

National Molecular Breeding Network

Why

  • Large-scale and pipeline based breeding calls for integrated breeding platform
  • Genotyping platform available allows to establish a common platform for all crops
  • It is not possible to establish independent molecular breeding platforms by individual small companies and institutions
  • Sharing platforms can perform more efficiently and effectively
slide8

National Molecular Breeding Network

How

National Genotyping Service Centers (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou)

Phenotyping Standardization and Demonstration Centers (cereals, vegetables, fruits)

Etyping Standardization and Demonstration Centers (cereals, vegetables, fruits)

Information Management Centers (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou)

slide9

A Breeding Team for Modern Plant Breeding

Line breeder 1

Line breeder 3

Line breeder 2

MB scientist

Applicationteam 1

Applicationteam 3

Applicationteam 2

Molecular breeding scientists support the adoption and use of new tools

slide10

4-D Profile of Plant Breeding

Time

Space

Plane

Line

Point

E

G

P

Genotype

E

E

G

Phenotype

P

Phenotype

G

Phenotype

P

E

G

P

Multi-phenotype across environments and time series assisted by genotype

Multi-phenotype across environments assisted by genotype

Single

phenotype

Multi-phenotype assisted by genotype

Multiple

phenotype

Revised from Xu et al. 2012 Mol Breed 29:833–854

slide11

The Future of Plant Breeding

  • Challenges + Opportunities
  • Reduced cost while increasing the scale and efficiency
  • High throughput genotyping, phenotyping and etypingplatforms
  • Effective information management and data analysis
  • Powerful decision support tools
  • Marker-assisted breeding as a routine practice in many breeding programs
slide12

Whole Genome Strategies: Product

Genotypes and genes

Optimized

gene networks

Specific Phenotypes

and Products

Specific genomic regions

Alleles or haplotypes

slide13

Thanks

谢 谢

Maize Molecular Breeding Laboratory

CIMMYT-CAAS Joint International Research Center

for Applied Genomics and Molecular Breeding

http://www.ccmaize.org

y.xu@cgiar.org

slide14

作物分子育种理论与应用

思 考 题

1. 规模化分子育种一般需要哪些支撑平台? 每个平台的基本要素是什么?

2. 简要描述性状-标记关联分析的基本思路

3. 简述分子标记辅助选择育种的基本方法及其应用