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Cut Points. ITE - 695. Section One. What are Cut Points?. I. Introduction. A . The more critical the issue (task) the more critical the cut point (example: programming a machine). 1. Interpretation of readouts. 2. Tolerances in measurement. B . Assumption: Test has both of these:

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cut points

Cut Points

ITE - 695

section one
Section One
  • What are Cut Points?
i introduction
I. Introduction

A. The more critical the issue (task) the more critical the cut point (example: programming a machine).

1. Interpretation of readouts.

2. Tolerances in measurement.

B. Assumption: Test has both of these:

1. Validity.

2. Reliability.

C. Select instrument that best measures action needed (performance vs. explanation).

ii types
II Types

A. Normative-Referenced Testing (NTR)

1. Significance

- Accepted reliability & validity

2. Measurement

a. Common Averages:

- mode

- median

- mean

ii types cont
II Types (cont.)

b. Variability:

- range

- quartile deviation

- standard deviation

3. Reliability

- Historical acceptance

ii types cont1
II Types (cont.)

B. Criterion-Referenced testing (CRT)

1. Significance

a. Testing

b. Distribution

2. Measurement

a. Judgements

b. Variables

ii types cont2
II Types (cont.)

3. Reliability

a. Criterion not based on normal distribution.

b. Data dichotomous, mastery/non-mastery.

norm refrenced testing
NORM REFRENCED TESTING

1. Separate test takers

2. Seek Normal Distribution Curve

norm refrenced testing1
NORM REFRENCED TESTING

1. Test items separate test - takers from one another.

2. Normal Distribution Curve.

measures of central tendencies
MEASURES of CENTRAL TENDENCIES
  • MODE
  • MEDIAN
  • MEAN
  • MEASURES of VARIBILITY or SCATTER
    • RANGE
    • DEVIATION (QUARTILE)
    • DEVIATION (STANDARD)
criterion referenced testing
CRITERION REFERENCED TESTING

1. Test items based on specific objectives.

2. Mastery Curve

slide13

Standard normal curve with

standard deviations

SEE HANDOUT

criterion refrenced test
CRITERION REFRENCED TEST

1. Test Compares to Objectives

2. Mastery Distribution

slide15

Norm-Reference Testing

Criterion Referenced Testing

GOALS

Test Achievement

Test Performance Mastery

RELIABILITY

Usually High

Usually Unknown

VALIDITY

Usually High

Instruction Dependent

ADMINISTRATION

Variable

Standard

STANDARD

Averages-Based

Performance Levels Based

MOTIVATION

Likelihood of Success

Avoidance of Failure

COMPETITION

Student to Criterion

Student to Student

INSTRUCTIONAL

DOMAIN

Cognitive or Psychomotor

Low Level Cognitive

slide16

Comparison models?

INPUT

PRODUCT

(NRT Results)

(Instruction)

Model For NRT Construction

DESIGN TEST

INPUT

PRODUCT

(Instruction)

(CRT Results)

MODIFY?

YES

NO

(Test, Objectives, or Instruction)

Model For CRT Construction

slide17

Mastery curve

SEE HANDOUT

slide18

Frequency distributions with

standard deviations

of various sizes

SEE HANDOUT

section ii

Section II

Establishing Cut Points

Three Primary Procedures

establishing cut point
ESTABLISHING CUT-POINT

1. Informed Judgement

2. Conjectural Approach

3. Contrast Group

slide21

I. Informed Judgement

A. Significance: Separates mastery from non- mastery

B. Procedure:

1. Analyze consequences of mid- classification (political, legal, or operational).

2. Gather previous test-taker data.

3. Ask other stakeholders.

4. Make decision.

slide22

II Conjecture Method

A. Significance: “Angoff-Nedeisky Method” - most useful.

B. Procedure:

1. Select three informed judges.

2. Estimate probability of correct response.

3. Chosen cut-off is average of the three judges.

slide23

III Contrast Group Method

A. Significance: Single strongest technique;

should still use human

judgement.

B. Procedure:

1. Select judges to identify mastery/non-mastery.

2. Select equal groups (15 minimum, 30 optimum).

3. Administer mastery/non-mastery test to both groups.

4. Plot scores on distribution chart.

5. Make critical cut-off where two distributions intersect.

6. Adjust score between highest non-master and lowest master.

score.

establishing a criterion cut point
Establishing A Criterion Cut-Point

Mastery Level - (Separates master from non-master)

1. Informed judgement

2. Conceptual Approach

3. Control groups

establishing a criterion cut point cont
Establishing A Criterion Cut-Point (cont.)

Mastery Level - (Separates master from non master)

1. Informed judgement

2. Conceptual Approach

3. Control groups

establishing a criterion cut point cont1
Establishing A Criterion Cut-Point (cont.)

Mastery Level - (Separates master from non master)

1. Informed judgement

2. Conceptual Approach

3. Control groups

slide27

Contrasting group method of

cut-off score selection chart.

SEE HANDOUT

section three

Section Three:

Reliability

slide29

I. Types

A. Internal Consistency

1. Kuder-Richardson Method.

2. Computer Statistical Package.

3. Problem: Lack of variance.

4. Problem: Excludes items that measure

unrelated objectives.

B. Test-Retest Score Consistency.

review
Review

Types of Validity: Methods of Establishing Cut-Points

1. Content 1. Informed Judgment

2. Construct 2. Conjecture Method

3. Criterion-related 3. Contrast Group Method

Types of Reliability:

1. Test-Retest

2. Internal Consistency

3. Equivalent forms

4. Interrupter reliability

section four review questions
Section Four: Review Questions
  • Validity cannot exist without reliability. (True or False)
  • Since CRT relies on judgment rather than normal distribution for scoring, how is reliability assured?
  • If it becomes necessary for you to establish cut-point for your training program, which of the three methods would you use and why? (Informed judgment, Conjecture method, or Contrast group method)
slide32

Norm-Reference Testing

Criterion Referenced Testing

GOALS

Test Achievement

Test Performance Mastery

RELIABILITY

Usually High

Usually Unknown

VALIDITY

Usually High

Instruction Dependent

ADMINISTRATION

Variable

Standard

STANDARD

Averages-Based

Performance Levels Based

MOTIVATION

Likelihood of Success

Avoidance of Failure

COMPETITION

Student to Criterion

Student to Student

INSTRUCTIONAL

DOMAIN

Cognitive or Psychomotor

Low Level Cognitive