Cut Points

1 / 32

# Cut Points - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Cut Points. ITE - 695. Section One. What are Cut Points?. I. Introduction. A . The more critical the issue (task) the more critical the cut point (example: programming a machine). 1. Interpretation of readouts. 2. Tolerances in measurement. B . Assumption: Test has both of these:

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.

## PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Cut Points' - dara

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

### Cut Points

ITE - 695

Section One
• What are Cut Points?
I. Introduction

A. The more critical the issue (task) the more critical the cut point (example: programming a machine).

1. Interpretation of readouts.

2. Tolerances in measurement.

B. Assumption: Test has both of these:

1. Validity.

2. Reliability.

C. Select instrument that best measures action needed (performance vs. explanation).

II Types

A. Normative-Referenced Testing (NTR)

1. Significance

- Accepted reliability & validity

2. Measurement

a. Common Averages:

- mode

- median

- mean

II Types (cont.)

b. Variability:

- range

- quartile deviation

- standard deviation

3. Reliability

- Historical acceptance

II Types (cont.)

B. Criterion-Referenced testing (CRT)

1. Significance

a. Testing

b. Distribution

2. Measurement

a. Judgements

b. Variables

II Types (cont.)

3. Reliability

a. Criterion not based on normal distribution.

b. Data dichotomous, mastery/non-mastery.

NORM REFRENCED TESTING

1. Separate test takers

2. Seek Normal Distribution Curve

NORM REFRENCED TESTING

1. Test items separate test - takers from one another.

2. Normal Distribution Curve.

MEASURES of CENTRAL TENDENCIES
• MODE
• MEDIAN
• MEAN
• MEASURES of VARIBILITY or SCATTER
• RANGE
• DEVIATION (QUARTILE)
• DEVIATION (STANDARD)
CRITERION REFERENCED TESTING

1. Test items based on specific objectives.

2. Mastery Curve

Standard normal curve with

standard deviations

SEE HANDOUT

CRITERION REFRENCED TEST

1. Test Compares to Objectives

2. Mastery Distribution

Norm-Reference Testing

Criterion Referenced Testing

GOALS

Test Achievement

Test Performance Mastery

RELIABILITY

Usually High

Usually Unknown

VALIDITY

Usually High

Instruction Dependent

Variable

Standard

STANDARD

Averages-Based

Performance Levels Based

MOTIVATION

Likelihood of Success

Avoidance of Failure

COMPETITION

Student to Criterion

Student to Student

INSTRUCTIONAL

DOMAIN

Cognitive or Psychomotor

Low Level Cognitive

Comparison models?

INPUT

PRODUCT

(NRT Results)

(Instruction)

Model For NRT Construction

DESIGN TEST

INPUT

PRODUCT

(Instruction)

(CRT Results)

MODIFY?

YES

NO

(Test, Objectives, or Instruction)

Model For CRT Construction

Mastery curve

SEE HANDOUT

Frequency distributions with

standard deviations

of various sizes

SEE HANDOUT

### Section II

Establishing Cut Points

Three Primary Procedures

ESTABLISHING CUT-POINT

1. Informed Judgement

2. Conjectural Approach

3. Contrast Group

I. Informed Judgement

A. Significance: Separates mastery from non- mastery

B. Procedure:

1. Analyze consequences of mid- classification (political, legal, or operational).

2. Gather previous test-taker data.

3. Ask other stakeholders.

4. Make decision.

II Conjecture Method

A. Significance: “Angoff-Nedeisky Method” - most useful.

B. Procedure:

1. Select three informed judges.

2. Estimate probability of correct response.

3. Chosen cut-off is average of the three judges.

III Contrast Group Method

A. Significance: Single strongest technique;

should still use human

judgement.

B. Procedure:

1. Select judges to identify mastery/non-mastery.

2. Select equal groups (15 minimum, 30 optimum).

3. Administer mastery/non-mastery test to both groups.

4. Plot scores on distribution chart.

5. Make critical cut-off where two distributions intersect.

6. Adjust score between highest non-master and lowest master.

score.

Establishing A Criterion Cut-Point

Mastery Level - (Separates master from non-master)

1. Informed judgement

2. Conceptual Approach

3. Control groups

Establishing A Criterion Cut-Point (cont.)

Mastery Level - (Separates master from non master)

1. Informed judgement

2. Conceptual Approach

3. Control groups

Establishing A Criterion Cut-Point (cont.)

Mastery Level - (Separates master from non master)

1. Informed judgement

2. Conceptual Approach

3. Control groups

Contrasting group method of

cut-off score selection chart.

SEE HANDOUT

### Section Three:

Reliability

I. Types

A. Internal Consistency

1. Kuder-Richardson Method.

2. Computer Statistical Package.

3. Problem: Lack of variance.

4. Problem: Excludes items that measure

unrelated objectives.

B. Test-Retest Score Consistency.

Review

Types of Validity: Methods of Establishing Cut-Points

1. Content 1. Informed Judgment

2. Construct 2. Conjecture Method

3. Criterion-related 3. Contrast Group Method

Types of Reliability:

1. Test-Retest

2. Internal Consistency

3. Equivalent forms

4. Interrupter reliability

Section Four: Review Questions
• Validity cannot exist without reliability. (True or False)
• Since CRT relies on judgment rather than normal distribution for scoring, how is reliability assured?
• If it becomes necessary for you to establish cut-point for your training program, which of the three methods would you use and why? (Informed judgment, Conjecture method, or Contrast group method)

Norm-Reference Testing

Criterion Referenced Testing

GOALS

Test Achievement

Test Performance Mastery

RELIABILITY

Usually High

Usually Unknown

VALIDITY

Usually High

Instruction Dependent

Variable

Standard

STANDARD

Averages-Based

Performance Levels Based

MOTIVATION

Likelihood of Success

Avoidance of Failure

COMPETITION

Student to Criterion

Student to Student

INSTRUCTIONAL

DOMAIN

Cognitive or Psychomotor

Low Level Cognitive