EXTENSIVE READING 授業としての多読多読学会 大学部会 2005/12/03 高瀬敦子 梅花高校・関西大学・他非常勤講師 Atsukot@jttk.zaq.ne.jp
What is Extensive Reading? • Extensive Reading means reading in quantity and in order to gain a general understanding of what is read. It is intended to develop good reading habits, to build up knowledge of vocabulary and structure, and to encourage a liking for reading (Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, 1992) • Extensive Reading is an approach to language teaching in which learners read a lot of easy materials in the new language ( Bamford and Day, 2004). • 100 million words and beyond (Sakai, 2002)
What are the Impact of ER? • Empirical studies have shown • Gains in reading proficiency • Gains in vocabulary • Gains in writing ability • Gains in general proficiency • Growth in positive affect • Gains in confidence • Experience of Reading Enjoyment
How to Motivate Students to Read Books Extensively • Provide easy materials. • Provide a variety of reading materials on a wide range of topics. • Minimize after-reading tasks. (Book reading record sheet - Gap filling 隙間埋め効果) 4. Secure in-class reading time.
Participants * 401 Second-year EFL Japanese female high school students (aged 16-17)over 7 years ＊Reading Proficiency Level Beginning to high intermediate ＊English Learning Background Four years of formal education before extensive reading ＊English Classes (per week for 45 minutes each) Intensive Reading (3), Extensive Reading (2), Grammar & Composition (3), Oral Communication (2)
ExtensiveReading Class • Duration: one academic year (April ~ February) • Materials: • Graded Readers (Cambridge, Heinemann, Longman, Oxford, & Penguin: 200 ~ 1,800 word level) • Picture Books (Addison-Wesley, Oxford, Random House, Scholastic, Longman, etc.) • Authentic Children’s Books (Magic Tree House & Tree Tops) • Requirements: • Reading books in class and outside of classroom • Filling in book a reading record sheet • Writing book summaries (1998 – 2001)
Data Collection * Amount of Reading - Self-report record of books read • Questionnaire • Interviews with 1/3 of the participants(1998 – 2003)
In-class Reading vs Voluntary Reading (2004)(Amount of Reading per Student)
Repeated-Measures ANOVA on the Pre- and Post-SLEP Test Scores(Gains in the SLEP Test)
Advantages of In-class SSR (Silent Sustained Reading) • Students can secure time to read. share the joy of reading. exchange information immediately. be encouraged by others’ reading performance. compete with each other to reading more. • Teachers can observe students’ reading performance. give appropriate instruction on the spot. give advice in effective reading.
Advantages of School Library (Survey conducted by Takase 2004 – 2005) 1. The best book management Keeping track of books Saving administration time 2. Increase uses of the library Keep reading after class Reading books of other areas Increase of studying time * Attracting other students to ER * 3. Easy access for the students Enabling students to browse and skim books before deciding upon one to read 4. Clear signal of the university approval of ER
Interview Answers • I had never thought I could read an English book. • It was great we could choose books of our own. • I was surprised that I was able to understand English without translating into Japanese. • I felt a sense of accomplishment and self confidence when I finished a book. • I am no longer afraid of 長文問題 in tests and entrance examinations. • I can read any kind of books in Japanese, but in English I can read only easy books, which are boring. (Need to raise the threshold level)
Implications • How to attract and motivate reluctant students to read more • How to improve students’ English proficiency • How to motivate colleagues to read books extensively on their own • How to persuade colleagues and schools to introduce and promote ER
EXTENSIVE READING EXTENSIVE READING CONCLUSION For a successful ER program • It is necessary to provide students an abundance of easy books in various genres. • It is necessary to minimize after-reading tasks. • It is necessary to give students enough in-class reading time.
References • Day, R., & Bamford, J. (1998). Extensive reading in the second language classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. • Bamford, J., & Day, R. (2004). Extensive Reading Activities for Teaching Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. • Dörnyei, Z. (1994a). Motivation and motivation in the foreign language classroom. Modern Language Journal, 78(3), 273-284. • Sakai, K. (2002) Kaidoku Hyakumango [Toward One Million Words and Beyond]. Japan: Chikuma Shobo. • Takase, A. (2004). Investigating Students’ Reading Motivation through Interviews. Forum for Foreign Language Education, 3. Institute of Foreign Language Education and Research, Kansai University, Osaka: Naniwa Press. • Takase, A. (2005). ある私立高校での多読授業への挑戦. 「教室で読む英語100万語」(酒井・神田編著）大修館書店