Chapter 6 diversity and difference in health care
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Chapter 6: Diversity and Difference in Health Care. Types of Cultural Diversity. Race National origin Religion Language Physical size Gender Sexual orientation. Age Disability Socioeconomic status Geographic location. Types of Personal Beliefs. Cultural beliefs Social beliefs

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Types of cultural diversity
Types of Cultural Diversity

  • Race

  • National origin

  • Religion

  • Language

  • Physical size

  • Gender

  • Sexual orientation

  • Age

  • Disability

  • Socioeconomic status

  • Geographic location


Types of personal beliefs
Types of Personal Beliefs

  • Cultural beliefs

  • Social beliefs

  • Religious beliefs

  • Personal convictions


Cultural and ethnic differences
Cultural and Ethnic Differences

  • Definition of Culture

    • A shared system of beliefs, values, and behavioral expectations that provide structure for daily living


Cultural and ethnic differences cont d
Cultural and Ethnic Differences (cont’d)

  • Factors Influencing Culture

    • Beliefs

    • Habits

    • Likes

    • Dislikes

    • Customs

    • Rituals


Cultural and ethnic differences cont d1
Cultural and Ethnic Differences (cont’d)

  • Facts About Culture

    • Provides shared identity for cultural group

    • Influences member’s view of:

      • Self

      • Expectations

      • Behavior

    • Is shaped by social & physical environment

    • Is transmitted via language, formal teaching, & observation of elders


Cultural and ethnic differences cont d2
Cultural and Ethnic Differences (cont’d)

  • Shared Characteristics of an Ethnic Group

    • Language & dialect

    • Religious practices

    • Literature

    • Folklore

    • Music

    • Political interests

    • Food preferences


Cultural and ethnic differences cont d3
Cultural and Ethnic Differences (cont’d)

  • Characteristics Distinguishing Minority Group

    • Race

    • Religion

    • Beliefs

    • Customs or practices


Cultural and ethnic differences cont d4
Cultural and Ethnic Differences (cont’d)

  • Physical Characteristics: Genetically Inherited Diseases

    • Tay-Sachs disease

    • Keloids

    • Lactase deficiency & lactose intolerance


Cultural and ethnic differences cont d5
Cultural and Ethnic Differences (cont’d)

  • Psychological Characteristics

    • Consider patient’s perspective & concerns

    • Remember that different cultures & individuals interpret behaviors differently


Cultural and ethnic differences cont d6
Cultural and Ethnic Differences (cont’d)

  • Reactions to Pain & Other Health Issues

    • Response to pain is culturally influenced

    • Patient in pain may not show it

    • Listen to patients who freely express their discomfort

    • Recognize influence of cultural & individual beliefs about health

    • Respect patient’s right to react to health care issues any way he wants to

    • Don’t stereotype a patient’s perceptions or responses based on culture


Cultural and ethnic differences cont d7
Cultural and Ethnic Differences (cont’d)

  • Gender Roles

    • Dominant male role in many cultures

    • Recognize who is culturally dominant member of family


Cultural and ethnic differences cont d8
Cultural and Ethnic Differences (cont’d)

  • Time Orientation

    • U.S.: punctuality is important

    • Other cultures (e.g., South Asian): punctuality not valued as highly

    • Different perceptions of past, present, & future


Cultural and ethnic differences cont d9
Cultural and Ethnic Differences (cont’d)

  • Food and Nutrition

    • Culture influences food preferences

    • Certain cultures have particular staple foods

    • Take cultural food differences into account when teaching about diet


Other differences among individuals
Other Differences Among Individuals

  • Socioeconomic Factors

    • Family income affects health & access to health care

    • Upper income groups live longer & have fewer disabilities

    • Poverty often leads to inadequate care of infants & children

    • Poor housing conditions affect health


Other differences among individuals cont d
Other Differences Among Individuals (cont’d)

  • Age

    • Children & older adults less able to communicate symptoms, medication responses

    • Different health needs in young vs. old

    • Don’t make assumptions based on age of patient alone


Other differences among individuals cont d1
Other Differences Among Individuals (cont’d)

  • Religion

    • Be sensitive to each patient’s values & beliefs


Diversity in health care practices
Diversity in Health Care Practices

  • Folk Medicine

    • Cutaneous stimulation

    • Therapeutic touch

    • Acupuncture

    • Acupressure


Diversity in health care practices cont d
Diversity in Health Care Practices (cont’d)

  • Natural Remedies

    • Herbs

    • Be aware of possible interactions with prescriptions

    • Keep personal opinions & biases to yourself


Diversity in health care practices cont d1
Diversity in Health Care Practices (cont’d)

  • Complementary or Alternative Medicine

    • Healing through:

      • Nutrition

      • Exercise

      • Relaxation

    • Emphasis on preventive medicine

    • Often borrowed from the practice of ethnic or cultural groups


Diversity in health care practices cont d2
Diversity in Health Care Practices (cont’d)

  • Acupuncture: a healing practice that originated in China


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