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MTSS and EWS Moving from Reaction to Prevention: Early Intervention for Disengaged Students. Melissa Long Janet Stephenson Based on the work of Dr. Rebecca Sarlo - USF. Today’s Objectives. Discuss the compelling why of Early Warning Systems Identify early indicators of dropouts
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MTSS and EWSMoving from Reaction to Prevention:Early Intervention for Disengaged Students Melissa Long Janet Stephenson Based on the work of Dr. Rebecca Sarlo - USF
Today’s Objectives • Discuss the compelling why of Early Warning Systems • Identify early indicators of dropouts • Describe the development and utility of Early Warning Systems • Explore the multi-faceted nature of engagement • Discuss data collection methods appropriate for identifying students who are disengaged academically, behaviorally, socially, or psychologically • Discuss effective dropout prevention strategies for each type of disengagement (MTSS) • Discuss progress monitoring of students at-risk for dropout
…and more • What will it take to implement effective Early Warning Systems in Brevard that impact student achievement? • What are our major barriers and how will we overcome them?
…and lets SIMPLIFY it even more! • Find ‘em! What is the problem? • EWS – Who? How BIG? • Figure out WHY it is occurring • Patterns, variables, what can we control? • Do something with them - MTSS • Get students more engaged • Proactive, preventative • Progress Monitor to see if it worked
The Goal of Having a Multi-Tiered System of Support in Middle and High Schools is to… A. Identify kids who are at risk.B. Make sure students are on track for graduation – college and career ready. • Use data to find out our school’s weaknesses and how to best use resources. • Help students who struggle in math and reading. • Drop out prevention • All of the above
Stop and Jot • What are indicators we know of potential drop outs? • How do drop outs affect society?
The WHY of our Work:A National Crisis • Nearly 30% of all high school students leave high school before graduating • Approximately 50% of African American and Latino American Students do not graduate • High School Dropouts • Have shorter life spans • Are more likely to be convicted of a crime • Cannot access 90% of the current fastest growing career fields • Cost the nation more than $325 billion in lost wages, taxes, and productivity
High School Dilemma • Deadly combination • Poor Skill Development • Limited or No Productivity (work completed, practice) • How do you remediate gaps AND provide students with access to content simultaneously? • How do you sustain student engagement when skill gaps are significant?
What We Know • Middle- and High-School teams “inherit” the strengths and weaknesses (and Gaps) students bring to the level • 64% of students repeating a grade in elementary school eventually drop out • 63% of students held back in middle school eventually drop out • Successful high school completion begins in kindergarten • Most successful high school “intervention” is to ensure that students enter with as much strength as possible
What We Know • Vertical Programming—articulation K-12- is the most effective way of ensuring that students are prepared for high school • Middle- and High-School staff should know student needs at least 12-16 month ahead of time. • The best high-school “screening” tool is the compilation of data in K-8 • An agreed upon “method” of vertical communication of student data/needs—that leads to vertical programming– is critical
What We Know We know DROPPING OUT is a process, not an event.
The Forgotten Middle “Making sure that all eighth-grade students have attained the knowledge and skills that put them on target to becoming ready for college and career is the single most important step that can be taken to improve their college and career readiness.” The Forgotten Middle: Ensuring that All Students are on Target for College and Career Readiness before High School (ACT, 2008) Dropout Prevention cannot be Sole Responsibility of High Schools
High School Transition • 9th grade is a “make or break” year • More students fail 9th grade than any other grade level • A disproportionate number of held-back 9th graders subsequently drop out of school • Powerful early signs of dropout are evident during the first semester and year of high school • Early intervention has proven effective for maintaining students in school
Table Talk • How does our district currently approach dropout prevention? • When are dropout prevention services initiated? For Whom? • How effective are the dropout prevention services? • What could be done to improve their effectiveness?
1. Finding them How BIG is our problem? Who? …and later…any patterns?
What are Early Warning Systems? Systems which: • Utilize routinely available data housed at the school • Help identify students at-risk for dropping out utilizing highly predictive data • Allow districts and schools to target interventions that support off-track or at-risk students while they are still in school • Allow districts and schools to uncover patterns and root causes that contribute to disproportionate drop-out rates at a particular school or within a particular group of students
Developing a District-Wide Early Warning System – Why? • The best predictor of future failure is current failure and disengagement • Assessing risk across multiple variables allows teams to provide early intervention and prevent disengagement from school and course failures • At-risk and off-track students are identified through analyzing a combination of engagement and academic data. • Many students experience course failures as a result of disengagement (e.g., excessive absenteeism, lack of productivity, inattention) • Systematically assessing student engagement allows schools to identify students in need of support before they have failed courses or acquired skill deficits related to missed instruction
EWS – 2 Key Questions • What are our problems? (How many students off track? Who?) • Why are they occurring?
EWS Indicators • Academic • Course Grades • GPA • Credits Earned • Retention • Good Cause Exempt. • Engagement • Attendance • Suspension • Tardies • Referral
Early Warning Systems • Identify all students who miss more than 20% of the available instructional time and/or • Identify students through engagement scales or behavior indicators • Identify all students who fail their math course • Identify all students who fail their English course • Flag students who display bothengagement and academic failure as high risk
Building Your Early Warning System • The best predictor of future failure is current failure and disengagement. • By the time students enter secondary schools they typically have years of data which indicates whether or not the student is at-risk for school failure and high school dropout. • Assessing risk across multiple variables allows teams to provide early intervention and prevent disengagement from school and course failures.
Extreme Off Track 2-3 Years Behind No chance for graduation in a traditional school setting Disengagement • Risk Factors: • 1. Disengagement • 20% absenteeism • 2. Behind in Credits • Particularly Core Course Failures • 3. GPA less than 2.0 • 4. Failed FCAT High Off Track 3 or more risk factors Off Track 2 of 4 risk factors indicated Students entering with 20% absenteeism and/or 2 or more F’s in 8th Grade • At Risk for Off Track • 1 of 4 risk factors indicated On Track No risk factors indicated Hendry County Schools
At-Risk Eighth Graders • Those who attend school less than 80% of the time (78% became drop outs) • Those who receive a failing grade in math and/or English (77% became drop outs) • Did not have strong predictive power: • Gender, race, age, test scores
Attendance: The Canary in the Coal Mine Of these 79 students 78 % could potentially become high school drop outs. 61 drop outs.
Stop and Jot • Make a list of indicators you will want in an Early Warning System. • Next to each item, record what data source Brevard currently has for retrieving that data.
2. Figure out WHY it is occurring Patterns and root causes What can we control?
Dropout Early Warning Signs Disengagement • Most students dropout mentally before ever physically leaving the school • A lack of engagement with school is a precursor to dropping out • Indicators of disengagement: • Attendance problems • Classroom/School engagement scales • Behavior marks • Students most often cite school-related reasons for dropping out
National Research Council publication, “Engaging schools: Fostering high school students’ motivation to learn” I can, I want to, I belong Competence, Autonomy, Belonging The other “ABCs” URL: http://www.nap.edu/catalog/10421.html Student engagement has emerged as the cornerstone of high school reform initiatives. Baumeister & Leary, 1995; Connell & Wellborn, 1990; NRC, 2004; Ryan & Deci, 2000
Student Engagement Engagement is the primary theoretical model for understanding dropout and is, quite frankly, the bottom line in interventions to promote school completion. Student engagement has emerged as the cornerstone of high school reform initiatives. Both academic and social aspects of school life are integral for student success; engagement at school and with learning are essential intervention considerations. Christenson et al., 2008 31
Both academic and social aspects of school life are integral for student success; engagement at school and with learning are essential intervention considerations. School completion is dependent on more than just academic performance and an absence of inappropriate behavior Yet… academic performance and behavior problems typically represent the totality of what schools monitor A complete early warning system will include identification of students who are socially and psychologically disengaged in addition to academic and behavioral disengagement and provide interventions specific to students’ needs McPartland (1994); Dynarski & Gleason (2002)
Engagement is the primary theoretical model for understanding dropout and is, quite frankly, the bottom line in interventions to promote school completion. Finn (1989 & 1993) Participation-Identification Model Indicators of withdrawal and engagement over several years Belonging, Identification, Relationships Engagement has an exponential effect on achievement and overall school success
“The Rich Get Richer” Time Spent Successful Perceive more Academically Performance teacher and Engaged peer support Feelings of Connection and Identification w/ School Feelings of competence and control Participation in School Activities
Engagement Theory 4 subtypes Academic Social Behavioral Psychological • Antidote to: students characterized as bored, unmotivated, and uninvolved • Academic – being a good learner; getting good grades • Behavioral-good citizen; participant; attending • Psychological – believing school matters • Social – having a feeling of belonging in school Dropping out is the most extreme form of disengagement Adapted from Christenson & Anderson, 2002; Newmann, 1992; Russell et al., 2005
Contextual Variable which Impact Student Engagement • Family • Academic and motivational support for learning • Goals and expectations of successful school performance • Monitoring/supervision • Learning resources in the home • Peers • Educational expectations • Shared common school value • High attendance rates • Academic beliefs and efforts • Peers’ aspiration for learning • School • School climate • Instructional programming and learning activities • Mental health support • Clear and appropriate teacher expectations • Goal structure (task vs. ability) • Teacher-student relationships
Academic Engagement • Indicators • Course Failures • Particularly Math and English in Middle School • Credits earned • GPA • Homework completion • Time on task • Academic engagement variables have a moderate to large effect on achievement • Most visible form of engagement and the most often tracked by school personnel
Dropout Early Warning Signs Course Performance Indicators • Course grades and failure rates are highly predictive of which students will or will not graduate from high school. • Students who fail one or more courses in the fall semester of their first year of high school are significantly more likely to eventually drop out • 85% of students with 0 semester failures in their freshmen year graduated in 4 years • 70% of students with one semester F during 9th grade graduate in 4 years • Only 55% of students with two semester Fs in 9th grade graduated in 4 years • Students with 3 or more semester Fs are not likely to graduate from high school
Calculating Risk with Course Performance Data • Freshman Course Failures, particularly in core academic courses • At the end of each marking period, identify the number of Fs earned by each student • Include both failures in any course and Fs earned in core academic courses • Freshman Grade Point Average (GPA) • At the end of each marking period and at the end of the cumulative year, identify students who earn a 2.0 or less • Credits earned in each term • Include the total number of credits accumulated per term for each student. • Identify students who fail to earn enough credits to be promoted to 10th grade (typically 5) • ¼ of the total number of credits required for graduation minus 1
Behavioral Engagement • Among the most common concerns expressed by educators and parents • Indicators • Attendance • Suspensions • Participation in classroom activities • Significantly related to academic achievement and school dropout
Dropout Early Warning Indicators Attendance • Attendance during the first year of high school is directly related to high school completion • Even moderate absences (5-10 days) in the first semester of 9th grade are associated with eventual drop out • Attendance is the biggest risk factor for failing 9th grade • 9th grade failure is the biggest risk factor for high school drop out
Dropout Early Warning Indicators Attendance • Missing more than 10% of instructional time is significant • Translates to roughly 10 days of school per semester in most high schools • Students who miss more than 10% of the first 20 days of school (2 days) are particularly at-risk for high school dropout • Any student missing more than 10% of instructional time (at 20 day mark or at each quarter) should be flagged for intervention
Dropout Early Warning Indicators Behavioral Problems • Early violent behavior • Chronic misbehavior, especially if it results in suspension or expulsion • Criminal behavior in the community • Middle and High Schools should identify students who display chronic misbehavior or accrue 2 or more suspension incidences in a semester period
Social Engagement • Indicators • Perception of support • Affiliation with school • Sense of belonging • Perception of the value of school and school related activities • Peer group .
Identifying Socially Disengaged Students • List all students names at grade levels and have adults in school initial next to students with whom they have a personal relationship. • Students with no initials by their names may be socially disengaged • Utilize a survey to identify students who are bullied, alienated by peers, or who simply perceive that they have difficulty connecting with peers • Employ a systematic student-nomination process within which school personnel indicate the students whom they have concerns regarding peer and/or adult connections • Determine which students are not actively engaged in extracurricular activities through the review of club and sport rosters and attendance logs
Stop and Jot • Make a list of indicators you will want to add to your Early Warning System to monitor students who are socially disengaged. • Where will we get this data? • Who could monitor?
Psychological Engagement • Indicators • Sense of confidence and control • Use of learning and problem solving strategies • Investment in learning • Perceived relevance of school for future outcomes • Significantly related to academic achievement, school attendance, and high school graduation.
Identifying Psychologically Disengaged Students • Utilize a survey to assess students’ sense of control, relevance of schoolwork, and future aspirations and goals • Employ a systematic student-nomination process within which school personnel indicate the students whom they are concerned regarding their interest in learning or lack post-secondary goals
Putting it all together… Middle School Early Warning Systems • School systems should focus on dropout prevention efforts in the beginning of the middle grades at the latest • Academic indicators • Fail either math or English • Engagement indicators • Attend school less than 80% of the time • Consistently miss instruction due to behavioral issues • Psychological or Social disengagement • Lack of peer group • Lack of involvement in school extracurricular activities • Low educational expectations • Retention • Retained 1 or more years • Mobility • Multiple schools during educational career
Putting it all together… High School Early Warning Systems • Academic indicators • GPA less than 2.0 • Failed Courses • Behind in Credits • Engagement indicators • Attend school less than 80% of the time • Consistently miss instruction due to behavioral issues • Psychological or Social disengagement • Lack of peer group • Lack of involvement in school extracurricular activities • Low educational expectations • Lack of personal relationship with adults at school • Retention • Retained 1 or more years • Mobility • Multiple schools during educational career