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Monitoring activities of running waters in Sweden. Leonard Sandin Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Uppsala, Sweden. Outline. Sampling methods macroinvertebrates Taxonomic resolution Classification system Reference site selection/criteria Monitoring program

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Monitoring activities of running waters in sweden

Monitoring activities of running waters in Sweden

Leonard Sandin

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

Uppsala, Sweden


Outline
Outline

  • Sampling methods macroinvertebrates

  • Taxonomic resolution

  • Classification system

  • Reference site selection/criteria

  • Monitoring program

  • Supporting information


Macroinvertebrate sampling method
Macroinvertebrate samplingmethod

  • Standardized kick-sampling

    • SSEN 27828

  • 1 m * 1 min and 5 samples

  • Preferably hard-bottom

  • 0,5 mm mesh

  • Autumn sampling

  • Sorting 2 h then subsampling (in the national surveys)


Taxonomic resolution
Taxonomic resolution

  • Predetermined taxa list (~500)

  • Expert group decided on the list

  • Based on:

    • Relatively easy to determine

    • Gives “extra” ecological information

    • Part of indices/metrics


Ecological quality criteria
Ecological quality criteria

  • New system will be adopted from 2007 (in revision at the moment)

  • Includes three metrics/indices:

    • ASPT Ecological quality

    • DJ index Eutrophication

    • MISA index Acidification/Acidity

  • Should be sampled at least once in the autumn each year


Types ecoregions
TypesEcoregions

20 Borealic uplands


Monitoring activities of running waters in sweden

Ecoregions

22 Fennoscandian shield


Monitoring activities of running waters in sweden

Ecoregions

14 Central plains


Aspt dj index
ASPT & DJ index

  • ASPT:

    • Armitage et al. 1983

    • Family level index

    • Scoring system (1-10) for each family

    • Divided by no of scoring families

  • DJ index

    • Dahl & Johnson 2005

    • Multimetric index for eutrophication

    • Five different parts:

    • No of EPT taxa, relative abundance of Crustacea, rel. abund. EPT taxa, ASPT, and Saprobix index (Zelinka & Marvan 1961)

    • Each index scores 1-3

    • Sum from 5 (lowest/worst) to 15 (highest/best quality)


Dj index
DJ index

The DJ index has to be re-scaled by:

Taking (reference value – 5) / (index value -5)


Misa index
MISA index

  • Johnson & Goedkoop 2005

  • Multimetric index

  • Includes six parts/indices:

    • No of families, no of taxa of Gastropoda, no of taxa of Ephemeroptera, the ratio of the relative abundance of Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera, the AWIC index [Dawy-Bowker et al 2005 relative abundance of shredders

    • Each index is normalised to be between 0-10

    • Rescaling: MISA = 10 x sum indexnorm / 6

    • Final score between 0-100



Reference values
Reference values

  • Ecoregion 14

    • ASPT: 5.37

    • DJ index: 10

    • MISA: 47.5

  • Ecoregion 22

    • ASPT: 6.53

    • DJ index: 14

    • MISA: 47.5

  • Ecoregion 20

    • ASPT: 6.67

    • DJ index: 14

    • MISA: 47.5



Final ecological quality
Final ecological quality

One-out-all-out among the three indices/metrics


Calculating the indices
Calculating the indices

  • www.aqem.de

  • ASTERICS software



National monitoring program
National monitoring program

  • Three levels:

    • National surveys

    • Trend stations

    • ?????????


National surveys
National surveys

  • Lake inventories since 1972

  • Biology – first time 1995

  • Repeated 2000

  • Benthic macroinvertebrates

  • 700 streams and 700 lakes

  • 2005 only lake chemistry again


Sampling strategy
Sampling strategy

  • Streams stratified by catchment area

    • 350 with areas 15-50 km2

    • 350 with areas 50-250km2

  • Randomly selected point

  • Sampling 100-600 m upstream


Sampling sites streams national survey
Sampling sites/streamsNational survey


Changing sampling sites
Changing sampling sites?

  • 606 sites included in analysis

  • 1995: county of Västernorrland removed

  • Site suitability assessed based on substratum

    • Blocks > 200 mm or Sand and silt < 2 mm

  • Samples could be moved further upstream


Weather
Weather

  • Autumn 2000 among the wettest during the 20th century

  • Yearly precipitation at most 160 – 170 % of normal

  • Air temperature 1.6 to 2.1 °C above normal

  • Water temperature 3 °C above normal in streams

  • 1995: precipitation and temperature near normal

Runoff

(l/km2, s)

From Wilander et al. 2003


Weather1
Weather

  • Main problem in

    south-west 2000

1995

2000

  • Rölanda å

  • County of

  • Västra Götaland


Trend stations
Trend stations

  • 69 streams

  • Across Sweden

  • Water chemistry (all)

  • Metals (30 stations)

  • Macroinvertebrates and phytobenthos (48 stations)

  • Electrofishing (28 stations – all with bf sampling)

  • Macroinvertebrates and metals (16 stations)


Trend stations1
Trend stations

  • 40 sites with catchment area < 300 km2

  • 6 further sites catchment area < 1000 km2

  • 1 site with catchment area 1260 km2

  • 1 site with catchment area 19825 km2 (Ljusnan)

  • Reasons:

    • Existing long time series

    • NATURA 2000 sites

    • Trout, Pearl mussels, Salmon, European crayfish

    • Large amount of existing catchment info available

    • Used for earlier international reporting



Liming references
Liming references

  • 19 streams

  • Water chemistry

  • Metals

  • Phytobenthos

  • Benthic macroinvertebrates

  • Fish


Physical parameters
Physical parameters

  • Standardised field protocol:

    • Sampling site information

    • In stream vegetation

    • Substratum

    • Riparian zone 0-5 meter perpendicular to the stream

    • Near stream zone 0-30 meter perpendicular to the stream


Sampling site information
Sampling site information

  • Site name

  • Width (sampling site) and length (Sampling site)

  • Stream width

  • Water level (normal/low/high)

  • Water depth (mean for site and maximum)

  • Velocity (0 = 0 m/s, 1 < 0.2 m/s, 2 0.2-0.7 m/s, 3 > 0.7 m/s)

  • Turbidity (clear, turbid, very turbid)

  • Water colour (clear, coloured, very coloured)

  • Water temperature


Substratum in stream vegetation
Substratum/ in stream vegetation

  • Classification 0 = absent, 1 < 5% cover, 2 5-50 % cover, 3 > 50% cover

  • Substratum: 11 classes from fine sediment (< 0.06 mm) to rock (> 2000 mm)

  • In stream vegetation: 6 vegetation types

    • Above water vegetation, long shoot vegetation, floating leaved, rosette vegetation, mosses, benthic algae

  • Organic material

    • Fine detritus, coarse detritus, fine dead wood, coarse dead wood


Riparian zone
Riparian zone

  • Same cover classes

    • Trees

    • Bushes

    • Grasses

    • Other vegetation types (specify)

    • Others (stone, agricultural land, without vegetation etc)

  • Shadow (cover as above)


Near stream zone
Near stream zone

  • Same cover classes

  • 13 land-use classes (e.g.):

    • Deciduous forest

    • Coniferous forest

    • Wetlands

    • Agricultural land

    • Grassland

    • Heath

    • Artificial land


Water chemistry parameters
Water chemistry parameters

  • pH, alkalinity

  • Conductivity

  • Ca, Mg, Na, K

  • SO4, Cl, F, Si

  • NH4-N, NO2+NO3, Total N, Total P

  • Absorbance

  • TOC