Violence Against Women Surveys in Finland. Markku Heiskanen European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control, Affiliated with the United Nations (HEUNI). Aim. Two comparable Violence Against Women Surveys in Finland Methods, problems, improvements Indicators?
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European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control, Affiliated with the United Nations (HEUNI)
- Screening questions
- Seeking help
- Other (restraining order, mediation, alcohol)
- Removed: costs of violence
Has your current partner sometimes behaved violently against you, such as:(over the last 12 months/earlier)
1 Threatened you with violence?
2 Prevented you from moving or grabbed you?
3. Slapped you?
4 Thrown a hard object at you?
5 Beaten you with a fist or a hard object, or kicked you?
6 Strangled or tried to strangle you?
7 Shot at you or stabbed or cut you with an edged weapon?
8 Beaten your head against something?
9 Coerced you or tried to coerce you to have sex with him?
10 Behaved violently against you in some other manner, how?
We ask yet more accurately of certain forms of sexual violence. Has your current partner: (over the last 12 months/earlier)
1 Forced you to have sex with him by threathing you, by grabbing you or by hurting you?
2 Tried to force you to have sex with him by threathing you, by grabbing you or by hurting you?
3 Had sex or tried to have sex with you, when you were not able to refuse, e.g. when you were sleeping, drunken, stunned, inconscious or in confused condition?
Female victims of partner violence and threats during the 12 months in different age groups in the Violence against women survey and in the National victimisation survey 1997 (% of women with a partner )
”Divorces and men's violence against women”,
(Hans Ekbrand 2006)
Different periods in couple relations & different forms of violence
Different forms of men’s violence
3 Psychological (controlling and dismissive behavioir)
4 Threats and warnings
Sample: separated women in Sweden (Gothenburg area)
Periods in couple relations:
1 The first six months of cohabitation
2 The following period until period III (median = 9 years)
3 The last six last months of cohabitation until a decision to separate is communicated
4 An optional period of cohabitation until the parties actually separate (3,5 months)
5 The period after cohabitation (until filling the questionnaire; 20 months)
6 The period of negotiations on custody, visitation or maintenance of children (if they had any)
1 Threatened to hurt you physically?
2 Threw something at you or hit you with something that hurt or frightened you?
3 Pushed or grabbed you or twisted your arm or pulled your hair in a way that really hurt or scared you?
4 Slapped, kicked, bit, or hit you with a fist?
5 Strangled, tried to suffocate you, burned or scalded you on purpose?
6 Used or threatened to use a knife or gun on you?
7 Other physical violence?
8 Forced you into sexual intercourse?
9 Attempted to force you into sexual intercourse?
10 Touched you sexually against your will?
11 Forced you into sexual activity with someone else?
12 Other sexual violence?
- problems; small and dissimilar samples, differences in the questionnaires
Comparable surveys, comparable modules or comparable questions?