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RT3b – André Smit, Siemens USA. U.S. Distribution Feeder Automation Pilot Project We have developed a peer-to-peer feeder automation system using WiMAX and IEC61850 During the project we needed to develop new protection settings for the feeder

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rt3b andr smit siemens usa
RT3b – André Smit, Siemens USA
  • U.S. Distribution Feeder Automation Pilot Project
  • We have developed a peer-to-peer feeder automation system using WiMAX and IEC61850
  • During the project we needed to develop new protection settings for the feeder
  • We found that conventional settings of coordinated overcurrent relays was not possible 
  • The relay setting groups could not be adapted to all the different operating scenarios we faced 
  • We needed to find a solution that was less complicated with better performance
slide2

Traditional Feeder Operation

  • Overcurrent protection operate and trip
  • Utility receives a fault notification from a customer experiencing an outage
  • Trouble desk dispatches a line crew to locate and isolate the fault
  • Crew restores service to unaffected sections of line
  • Crew effects repairs and restores feeder to normal operation
  • Outage time could be measured in hours

André Smit – U.S. – RT3b

automation of the distribution feeder
Automation of the Distribution Feeder

FLISR

  • Fault Location, Isolation, and Service Restoration

Switch

Circuit Breaker

Recloser

automating the distribution feeder
Automating the Distribution Feeder

Operational Features to Consider

  • Change open point based on loading
  • Isolate line sections for maintenance
  • Transfer to healthy source

Circuit Breaker

Recloser

different curve shapes to deal with
Different curve shapes to deal with

Relay protecting power transformer does not have same shape curve as fuse designed to protect small distribution feeder load

affect when lowering the isc
Affect when lowering the Isc

The effect of moving 50 setting to indicate what happens when Isc is low.

Little room to coordinate with 51 element. Cannot coordinate with 50 element

as a higher Isc will cross both lines and both relays will trip.

affect without low isc being a factor
Affect without low Isc being a factor

If low Isc not a factor, more space to coordinate with 51 element and still stay above fuse.

3 reclosers with tolerance affect
3 Reclosers with Tolerance Affect

Typical TCC curve showing high and low tolerances. (Used ±5% on pickup & time.)

Not considering CT tolerance. Illustrates need for space between curves.

1 recloser
1 Recloser

Only one recloser easy to fit between max fuse and feeder main breaker.

Better coordination (more space) between all four devices.

one set of tcc curves of 16 sets using four total setting groups
One set of TCC curves of 16 setsUsing four total setting groups

51 pickup markers

Match curves

to data

by color

Largest downstream fuse

Feeder main breaker and three reclosers

Upstream Transformer or Bus Main Breaker

50 active only during reclose

one set of tcc curves of 16 sets using four total setting groups1
One set of TCC curves of 16 setsUsing four total setting groups

51 pickup markers

Match curves

to data

by color

Largest downstream fuse

Feeder main breaker and three reclosers

Upstream Transformer or Bus Main Breaker

50 active only during reclose

difficulties in coordinating feeder
Difficulties in Coordinating Feeder
  • Reclosers are in series on feeder and not located on branches
  • Segments have different types of loads
  • Curves for transformers are not as steep
  • Demand changes by time of day and season and differently for each segment
  • Melt/time characteristics for distribution fuses do not fit closely with substation transformer protection upstream
  • Original system designed without new switching points
difficulties in coordinating feeder1
Difficulties in Coordinating Feeder
  • High source impedance + long line = very low fault currents
  • Substations located at the ends of the line, so source impedance is usually high; a long feeder—the best candidate for automation—adds to the impedance
  • Severe limits caused by existing minimum current settings and low short circuit current (Isc)
  • Low available Isc limits use of 50, or 50 with definite time
  • Must include considerable allowance for high-impedance branch line faults causing Isc to be even lower
  • Inrush current could be five times nominal current, therefore precluding the use of 50 element when Isc is low
our solution
Our Solution
  • Detect and isolate faults with a differential (87L) function
  • Activate a 50/51 overcurrent curve on one device end and reclose on fault

Diff Zone

Diff Zone

Primary

Switch 1

Primary

Switch 2

Primary

Switch 3

87

87

87

87

87

87

Relay 1

Relay 2

Relay 3

performance
Performance

Direct Fiber

WiMAX

30 msec

80 msec

automating the distribution feeder1
Automating the Distribution Feeder

Locate using 87L

Isolate using 87L & Restore

Reclose using 50/51

Restore

new protection for automated feeders
New Protection for Automated Feeders
  • Fast
  • Selective
  • Uncomplicated
  • Minimal Disruption for customers

Reclosers

Feeder Breaker

Transformer