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Romantics, Reformers and Restless Warriors. Late 1820s – 1840s. Assess the accuracy of Tocqueville’s view of early 19 th century America as a land of equality . (Visited: 1831-2) Was he correct? If so, about what?. Democracy in America p ub. 1835 , 40.

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Assess the accuracy of Tocqueville’s view of early 19th century America as a land of equality.(Visited: 1831-2)Was he correct? If so, about what?

  • Democracy in Americapub. 1835, 40
pillars of emerging american middle class
Pillars of Emerging American Middle Class:
  • Recast Family
  • Church
  • Voluntary association

Question? Assume the role of the head of a middle class household in the 1820’s. Describe how the changes taking place in the national economy affect your family’s life and how you are coping with the changes…

tocqueville s democracy in america 1835
Tocqueville’s Democracy in America 1835
  • “…the religious atmosphere of the country was the first thing that struck me on arrival in the United States."
  • “…religious experimentation increases in response to changes in people's economic lives. The dynamic, transformative economy of the Jacksonian period profoundly altered people's sense of their relations to their neighbors, to their family, and to their employers and employees. Fundamental moral questions--what is a legitimate profit? What does it mean to be a "free" laborer? How much responsibility does an individual bear for his or her fate?-- pressed on citizens with a new urgency.”
      • – Prof. O’Mally, George Mason U.

second great awakening
Second Great Awakening
  • Disagreements about:
      • infant damnation (“debased doctrine”)
      • Predestination
      • deistic thinking
  • Traditional Revivalists:
    • Timothy Dwight, president of Yale
    • Lyman Beecher
    • “Salvation of sinners because of God’s mercy and disinterested benevolence”
charles finney and the burned over district
Charles Finney and the Burned Over District
  • Charismatic evangelist
  • Itinerant preacher
  • “Finney's influence rose in tandem with that of Andrew Jackson; both addressed the issues of equality of men, and free will and self governance. In his Lectures on Revivals of Religion…Finney’s [definition of]… not a miracle in the sense of a physical change brought on solely by God, but a change of mind which, though influenced by the Holy Spirit, is ultimately a matter of the individual's free will.”
    • “Charles Grandison Finney.” 2006.
finney s revivals
Finney’s Revivals:
  • Take salvation in your hands
  • Entertaining as well as edifying
  • Song
  • “Anxious bench”
  • Offers safety to those in the region for work (uncertainty) – response to Panic
what is a utopian community compare two in what ways are they an expression of the romantic impulse
What is a utopian community?Compare two…In what ways are they an expression of the Romantic impulse
  • 100’s founded in US in first half of 18th C
  • Such as…?

Most utopian communities fail: Why?

  • Fourierists – Frenchman Charles Fourier
    • dozens of socialist colonies experimented
    • cooperative “phallanxes”
  • New Harmony : IN - British Robert Owen
    • Socialist – avoid competition
    • Atheism and ‘free love’
  • Oneida Community: Oneida NY – John Noyes
    • Spiritual perfectionism
    • “complex marriage” experiment
      • Break down egoistic habits
    • Manufacturing base (silverware)
  • Mother Ann Lee
  • Celibate
  • Segregated sexes
  • Common property
  • Equality of labor and reward
  • Singing and dancing – release from tightly run life
  • Universally tolerated
  • 'Tis the gift to be simple, 'Tis the gift to be free,'Tis the gift to come down where you ought to be,And when we find ourselves in the place just right,'Twill be in the valley of love and delight.

When true simplicity is gainedTo bow and to bend we shan't be ashamed,To turn, turn will be our delight,'Till by turning, turning we come round right.

the mormon church
The Mormon Church

Joseph Smith

Brigham Young

  • Joseph Smith
  • Translated book of Mormon
  • Ohio – exclusivism and unorthodox religious views – caused resentment
  • Move to Missouri, then Illinois
  • Nauvoo Legion
  • Smith secretly authorized polygamy
  • Smith and brother arrested by mob
  • Brigham Young – Salt Lake Utah
the age of reform associations
The Age of Reform: Associations
  • What was their role? What impact did they have?
  • What is the most interesting reform movement to you?
demon rum
Demon Rum!
  • Colonial attitudes
  • 1820s see a shift
  • ATU
  • Washingtonians
  • 1840s
    • Licensing
    • Liquor taxes
  • Maine bans manuf
    • and sale 1851
age of reform
Age of Reform
  • Thomas Gallaudet
  • Samuel Gridley


  • Eastern State Penitentiary
  • Auburn Prison
  • Dorothea Dix
education and a reading culture
Education and a Reading Culture
  • Horace Mann
  • Henry Barnard
  • Public Universities
  • Penny newspapers
  • Dime Novels
  • Davy Crockett Almanacs
a trickle of abolitionism becomes a stream
A Trickle of Abolitionism Becomes a Stream
  • Pre and Post Missouri Compromise
  • Black Abolitionists
    • David Walker -1829; Paul Cuffe
  • William Lloyd Garrison
    • The Liberator - 1831
  • Frederick Douglass
  • Elijah Lovejoy
  • Arthur & Louis Tappan
  • Theodore Weld and Angelina Grimke
  • Pennsylvania Hall -1838
  • Solomon Northrup 1841-53
  • Liberty Party – Birney in 1844
women s suffrage
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton
  • Lucretia Mott
  • Grimke Sisters
  • Susan B. Anthony

By the 1850s

Upas Tree – a tropical tree known to contain a poison used in blowdarts and arrows

Published 1853 by Armistead Wilson

tyler s presidency 41 45
Tyler’s Presidency ’41-’45
  • Independent
  • Whig Cabinet


  • Boundary dispute?
  • Texas?
  • Moses Austin
  • Stephen Austin 1821
  • Three Hundred Families
  • 1821 Republic of Mexico
  • The Centralistas and Santa Anna ’24
    • “The Napoleon of the West”
  • Battle of Gonzales
      • October 1835
      • The "Lexington-Concord" of Texas
texas war of independence
Texas War of Independence
  • Alamo ‘36 - 187 men die
  • Goliad
  • San Jacinto - April 1836
  • Annex us - Please!!!
  • What were Jackson &

Van Buren doing?

http://Texas flags

sam houston
Sam Houston
  • Jacksonian protégé
  • Governor of two states
  • Guilty of beating a congressman in DC
    • Francis Scott Key – his lawyer
    • Fled wife and US for Texas -1832
  • Commander in chief won at San Jacinto ‘36
  • President of Texas
    • 2 nonconsecutive terms
  • Sought annexation
  • Will lose favor in Texas when he opposes secession in 1860
pres james k polk 1845 49
Pres James K Polk 1845-49
  • Why are Americans predisposed to MD?
  • “Manifest Destiny” – John O’Sullivan ’45
  • Election of 1844
    • Darkhorse
    • 54 40 or Fight!
    • Liberty Party effect in upstate NY
  • Oregon
  • Texas
  • Mexican War ‘46-’48
the mexican war polk s war
The Mexican War: Polk’s War
  • What are the causes for this war?
  • Was it an unnecessary war? Why or why not?
richard caton woodville s 1848 painting war news from mexico
Richard Caton Woodville’s 1848 paintingWar News from Mexico
  • What themes are evident in Woodville’s painting?

Reproduced print from engraving

Detail from painting

what is the relationship between the war the treaty that ended it and the debate on slavery
What is the relationship between the War, the Treaty that ended it, and the debate on slavery?
  • Slidell sent to buy SW – late 1845
  • Fremont stirs up, helps organize Californians up north

Bear Flag Army awaits war

  • Taylor crosses Nueces River boundary March ‘46
  • Crossing boundary, Mexicans fire on Taylor’s army
  • Spot resolutions
  • May, 1846: Declaration of War!
  • David Wilmot’s Proviso – 1846 debated
  • Admiral Sloat takes Monterey
  • Zachary Taylor takes Buena Vista, then Scott takes M city

– 2 worrisome Whigs take Mexico

  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – Nick Trist, Scott and Polk…
election of 1848
Election of 1848

And the Free Soil Party…

oregon missionaries
Oregon Missionaries
  • American Missionary Society 1830s
  • Wiliamette Valley
  • Oregon Trail early 40’s
  • Marcus and Narcissa Whitman
    • School
    • Cayuse Indians
  • Murder Trial
  • Prompts Territory organization 1848

“There is no working class (the Indians being practically serfs and doing all the hard work)

And every rich man looks like a grandee, and every poor scamp like a broken down

genbtleman.” Two Years before the Mast, 1840 Richard Henry Dana


The buckskin trade

taylor s headache
Taylor’s Headache?

John Sutter


San Francisco

7000 => 100,000

150,000 => 35,000

the compromise of 1850
The Compromise of 1850


    • California Republic est: 1847
    • State const. revised w/o slavery Oct 1849
  • Clay offers one last compromise
    • Young Stephen Douglas helps
    • Calhoun warns
  • What are its provisions? Which are most loathsome? To whom? Why?
debating in the golden age of the senate
Debating in the Golden Age of the Senate
  • Clay
  • Calhoun
  • Webster
  • Fillmore

US Senate A.D. 1850 by Peter F. Rothermel (1855)