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The nation in crisis. AIHE Kern County, CA February 8-9, 2013 Dr. Lillie Johnson Edwards Drew University Madison, NJ. Richard M. Nixon (1913-1994) 37 th President of the United States (1969-1974). Nixon Administration’s Foreign Policies. Détente Vietnam Cambodia

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the nation in crisis

The nation in crisis


Kern County, CA

February 8-9, 2013

Dr. Lillie Johnson Edwards

Drew University

Madison, NJ


Nixon Administration’s

Foreign Policies

  • Détente
  • Vietnam
    • Cambodia
    • Student, soldier and veteran anti-war protests
    • Pentagon Papers & the War Powers Act
    • Paris Peace Agreement

Nixon Administration’s

Domestic Policies

  • Welfare: Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC)
  • Race: Philadelphia Plan & Affirmative Action
  • Judicial Activism: The Burger Court
  • Gender Equity: Title IX and Equal Credit Opportunity Act
  • NEA & NEH budgets doubled
  • OSHA

Rate of Divorce

Per 1,000 New Marriages, 1950-1980


Détente 1973

Leonid Breznev and Richard Nixon


Vietnam: Cambodia Killing Fields

Bones of ChoeungEk victims

Commemorativestupa with the skulls of victims from ChoeungEk


Kent State, May 4, 1970

  • Anti-War Students,
  • Soldiers and Veterans

Vietnam Veterans

Against the War, 1967

Rebel soldiers in Vietnam


The Pentagon Papers

United States – Vietnam Relations, 1945–1967:

A Study Prepared by the Department of Defense

Daniel Ellsberg, outside a federal courthouse in 1971, faced 12 felony counts as a result of his leak of the Pentagon Papers; the charges were dismissed in 1973.

War Powers Resolution Public Law 93-148, 87 Stat. 555passed over President Nixon's veto on Nov. 7, 1973

Ensure collective judgment of Congress and the President in sending American troops into hostilities & Commander-in-Chief powers can only be used under a declaration of war

Requires the President to consult with Congress before sending US troops into hostilities

Requires the President to report to Congress on US troops in hostile engagements

Troops required to be removed within 60 days except under specific condition established in the War Powers Resolution

If a federal court rules that any one part of the law is invalid, all other parts will remain in force


Paris Peace Agreement

  • Ends the Vietnam War, Jan. 27, 1973
watergate chronology
Watergate Chronology

Jan. 20, 1969 Nixon becomes the 27th Pres. of the U.S.

June 17, 1972 Burglary of Democratic National HQ at the Watergate Hotel, Washington, DC

Jan. 20, 1973 Nixon re-elected with a landslide victory

April 30, 1973 Nixon announces departure of aids Dean, Haldeman and Ehrlichman

August 15, 1973 Defiant speech admitting no guilt in burglary or a cover-up

Feb. 6, 1974 House of Representatives Resolution 803 by 410-4 authorises impeachment proceedings April 29, 1974 Nixon releases partial transcripts of the White House tapes

August 8-9, 1974 Resignation Speech and resignation


Economic Crisis

  • Decline of Manufacturing & deindustrialization
  • Stagflation
  • Social Impact
    • Job Loss
    • Declining “Rustbelt” Population
    • Declining Tax Base
    • Increase in Poverty Rate
  • Labor on the Defensive
  • Oil Embargo, 1973