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Safety in Small to Medium Enterprises. Sean Mahar, PhD, CIH, CSP, PE. Important legislation. The Health and Safety at Work etc. Act Management of Health and Safety at Work Control of Substances Hazardous to Health The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations

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safety in small to medium enterprises
Safety in Small to Medium Enterprises

Sean Mahar, PhD, CIH, CSP, PE

important legislation
Important legislation
  • The Health and Safety at Work etc. Act
  • Management of Health and Safety at Work
  • Control of Substances Hazardous to Health
  • The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations
  • Workplace health, safety and welfare
risk assessment
Risk Assessment
  • Council Directive 89/391/EEC
  • Management of Health and Safety at Work 1999
  • Control of Substances Hazardous to Health 2002 (COSHH)
hazard and risk
Hazard and Risk
  • Hazard: the inherent potential to cause harm or injury
  • Risk: the likelihood of harm or injury arising from a hazard
hazard and risk1
Hazard and Risk
  • Hazard is the potential
  • Risk is the likelihood
risk assessment1
Risk Assessment

Council Directive 89/391/EEC

Article 9,Various obligations on employers

The employer shall be in possession of an assessment of the risks to safety and health at work, including those facing groups of workers exposed to particular risks;

risk assessment2
Risk Assessment

Management of Health and Safety at Work 1999

Regulation 3 Risk Assessment, requires employers to make a suitable and sufficient assessment of risks to the health and safety of their employees whilst at work

risk assessment3
Risk Assessment

Control of Substances Hazardous to Health 2002 (COSHH)

Regulation 6Risk Assessment, requires employers to make a suitable and sufficient assessment of risks to the health and safety of their employees whilst at work

risk assessment4
Risk Assessment

A "suitable and sufficient" assessment:

  • correctly identifies any significant risk that is reasonably foreseeable
  • enables the assessor to decide what action needs to be taken, and what the priorities should be
  • is appropriate for the type of activity
risk assessment5
Risk Assessment
  • remains valid for a reasonable time
  • reflects what employers may reasonably practicably be expected to know about the risks associated with their undertaking.
risk assessment6
Risk Assessment

It should:

  • disregard inconsequential risks and those trivial risks associated with life in general
  • determine the likelihood of injury or harm arising
risk assessment7
Risk Assessment
  • quantify the severity of the consequences and the numbers of people who would be affected
  • take into account any existing control measures
  • identify any specific legal duty or requirement relating to the hazard
risk assessment8
Risk Assessment
  • remain valid for a reasonable period of time
  • provide sufficient information to enable the employer to decide upon appropriate control measures, taking into account the latest scientific developments and advances
  • enable the employer to prioritise remedial measures
risk assessment9
Risk Assessment
  • Look for the hazards
  • Decide who might be harmed and how
  • Evaluate the risks and decide whether the existing precautions are adequate or whether more should be done
  • Record your findings
  • Review your assessment and revise it if necessary
hazard
Hazard
  • Look only for hazards which you could reasonably expect to result in significant harm under the conditions in your workplace.
hazards
Hazards
  • slipping/tripping hazards (eg poorly maintained floors or stairs)
  • fire (eg from flammable materials)
  • chemicals (eg essentail oils)
  • electricity (eg poor wiring)
  • manual handling
  • poor lighting
review and revision
Review and revision

If there is any significant change, add to the assessment to take account of the new hazard, eg when bringing in new

  • machines
  • substances
  • procedures

may introduce significant new hazards.

coshh risk assessment
COSHH Risk Assessment

The risk assessment shall include consideration of -

  • the hazardous properties of the substance;
  • information on health effects provided by the supplier, including information contained in any relevant safety data sheet;
coshh risk assessment1
COSHH Risk Assessment
  • the level, type and duration of exposure;
  • the circumstances of the work, including the amount of the substance involved;
  • activities, such as maintenance, where there is the potential for a high level of exposure;
coshh risk assessment2
COSHH Risk Assessment
  • any relevant occupational exposure standard, maximum exposure limit or similar occupational exposure limit;
  • the effect of preventive and control measures which have been or will be taken in accordance with regulation 7;
coshh risk assessment3
COSHH Risk Assessment
  • in circumstances where the work will involve exposure to more than one substance hazardous to health, the risk presented by exposure to such substances in combination;
  • the approved classification of any biological agent;
gathering information1
Gathering Information
  • Identification of relevant hazardous substances including intermediate products.
  • General sources of information - texts, journals, microfiche and computer databases, HSE, trade literature, other.
gathering information2
Gathering Information
  • Specific sources of information - data sheets, requirement for suppliers to provide information, The Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply) Regulations 2002, Interpretation of safety data sheets. Use of specialist advice.
gather information
Gather information

Thehazardous substances used or produced (chemical, biological), includingintermediates (substances inventory). NB. the problem of trade names, mixtures.

s ources of information
Sources of information
  • HSE EH Series
  • The Chemical(Hazard Information and Packaging For Supply) Regulations 2002
  • Computerdatabases
  • Journals
  • Trade literature.
databases
Databases

The Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory   Oxford University Chemical and Other Safety Information

http://physchem.ox.ac.uk/MSDS/#MSDS

databases1
Databases

University of Bristol School of Chemistry Material Safety Data Sheets

www.tlchm.bris.ac.uk/safety/msds.htm

slide32
CHIP

The Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply) Regulations 2002

  • Part I - Preliminary
  • Part2 - General requirements
  • Part3 - Miscellaneous
chip general requirements
CHIP General requirements
  • Classification of dangerous substances and dangerous preparations.
  • Safety data sheets for dangerous substances, dangerous preparations and certain other preparations.
  • Advertisements for dangerous substances and dangerous preparations.
chip general requirements1
CHIP General requirements
  • Packaging of dangerous substances and dangerous preparations.
  • Labelling of dangerous substances and dangerous preparations.
  • Particular labelling requirements for certain preparations.
chip general requirements2
CHIP General requirements
  • Methods of marking or labelling packages.
  • Child resistant fastenings, tactile warning devices and other consumer protection measures.
  • Retention of data for dangerous preparations.
slide36
CHIP

www.hse.gov.uk/chip/phrases.htm

  • Abbreviation/description of hazard
  • Risk phrases
  • Safety phrases
  • Symbols
chip categories
CHIP categories
  • Physicochemical Properties
  • Health Effects
  • Environmental Effects
explosive e
Explosive (E)

Chemicals that explode

o xidising o
Oxidising (O)

Chemicals that react exothermically with other chemicals

e xtremely f lammable f
Extremely Flammable (F+)

Chemicals that have an extremely low flash point and boiling point, and gases that catch fire in contact with air

highly f lammable f
HighlyFlammable (F)

Chemicals that may catch fire in contact with air, only need brief contact with an ignition source, have a very low flash point or evolve highly flammable gases in contact with water

very toxic t
Very toxic (T+)

Substances and preparations which in very low quantities cause death or acute or chronic damage to health when inhaled, swallowed or absorbed via the skin.

t oxic t
Toxic (T)

Substances and preparations which in low quantities cause death or acute or chronic damage to health when inhaled, swallowed or absorbed via the skin.

harmful xn
Harmful (Xn)

Substances and preparations which may cause death or acute or chronic damage to health when inhaled, swallowed or absorbed via the skin.

sensitising xi xn
Sensitising (Xi, Xn)

Substances and preparations which, if they are inhaled or if they penetrate the skin, are capable of eliciting a reaction by hypersensitization such that on further exposure to the substance or preparation, characteristic adverse effects are produced.

d angerous for the environment n
Dangerous for the environment (N)

Substances and preparations which, were they to enter into the environment, would present or might present an immediate or delayed danger for one or more components of the environment.

physicochemical properties
Physicochemical Properties

Explosive can explode

Oxidising react exothermically with other chemicals

Extremely flammable extremely low flash point and boiling point, and gases that catch fire in contact with air

physicochemical properties1
Physicochemical Properties

Highly flammable may catch fire in contact with air, only need brief contact with an ignition source, have a very low flash point or evolve highly flammable gases in contact with water

health
Health

Very toxiccause damage to health at very low levels

Toxic cause damage to health at low levels

Carcinogenmay cause cancer or increase its incidence

health1
Health

Mutageninduce heritable genetic defects or increase their incidence

Reproductive Toxinproduce or increase the incidence of non-heritable effects in progeny and/or an impairment in reproductive functions or capacity

health2
Health

Harmful may cause damage to health

Corrosive may destroy living tissue on contact

Irritant may cause inflammation to the skin or other mucous membranes

Sensitiser capable of eliciting a reaction by hypersensitization

environment
Environment

Dangerous for the environment present or might present an immediate or delayed danger for one or more components of the environment

chip risk phrases
CHIP Risk Phrases
  • R1Explosive when dry
  • R11 Highly flammable
  • R21 Harmful in contact with skin
  • R25 Toxic if swallowed
  • R36 Irritating to eyes
  • R41 Risk of serious damage to eyes
  • R68 Possible risk of irreversible effects
chip risk phrases1
CHIP Risk Phrases
  • R48 Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure
  • R48/20 Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation
  • R48/20/21 Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and in contact with skin
chip risk phrases2
CHIP Risk Phrases
  • R48/20/21/22 Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
  • R48/20/22 Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and if swallowed
chip risk phrases3
CHIP Risk Phrases
  • R20 Harmful by inhalation
  • R21 Harmful in contact with skin
  • R22 Harmful if swallowed
inhalation
Inhalation

R20 Harmful by inhalation

R23 Toxic by inhalation

R26 Very toxic by inhalation

skin contact
Skin Contact

R21 Harmful in contact with skin

R24 Toxic in contact with skin

R27 Very toxic in contact with skin

ingestion
Ingestion

R22 Harmful if swallowed

R25 Toxic if swallowed

R28 Very toxic if swallowed

chip safety phrases
CHIP Safety Phrases
  • S1 Keep locked up
  • S24 Avoid contact with skin
  • S25 Avoid contact with eyes
  • S37 Wear suitable gloves
  • S50 Do not mix with ... (to be specified by the manufacturer)
  • S64 If swallowed, rinse mouth with water (only if the person is conscious)
gather information1
Gather information
  • Recommended operating practices and precautionary measures
gather information2
Gather information
  • Engineeringcontrols
  • Personal protective equipment.
gather information3
Gather information
  • Foreseeable mishaps / emergencies.
who might be harmed
Who might be harmed?
  • office staff
  • patients
  • maintenance personnel
  • people sharing your workplace
  • operators
  • cleaners
  • members of the public
who might be harmed1
Who might be harmed?

Pay particular attention to:

  • staff with disabilities
  • visitors
  • inexperienced staff
  • lone workers

as they may be more vulnerable

specify any action required1
Specify any action required
  • Additional control measures
is more needed to control the risk
Is more needed to control the risk?

For the hazards listed, do the precautions already taken:

  • meet the legal requirements?
  • comply with a industry standards?
  • represent good practice?
  • reduce risk as far as reasonably practicable?
is more needed to control the risk1
Is more needed to control the risk?

Have you provided:

  • adequate information, instruction or training?
  • adequate systems or procedures?

If so, then the risks are adequately controlled, but you need to indicate the precautions you have in place.

is more needed to control the risk2
Is more needed to control the risk?

Where the risk is not adequately controlled, indicate what more you need to do (the 'action list')

coshh control
COSHH Control

Regulation 7

Prevention or control of exposure to substances hazardous to health

coshh regulation 7
COSHH Regulation 7

Substitution shall by preference be undertaken

coshh regulation 71
COSHH Regulation 7

the design and use of appropriate work processes, systems and engineering controls and the provision and use of suitable work equipment and materials;

coshh regulation 72
COSHH Regulation 7

the control of exposure at source, including adequate ventilation systems and appropriate organisational measures;

coshh regulation 73
COSHH Regulation 7

where adequate control of exposure cannot be achieved by other means, the provision of suitable personal protective equipment

record your findings
Record your findings

Risk assessments must be suitable and sufficient. You need to be able to show:

  • a proper check was made
  • you asked who might be affected
record your findings1
Record your findings
  • you dealt with all the obvious significant hazards, taking into account the number of people who could be involved the precautions are reasonable, and the remaining risk is low.
record your findings2
Record your findings

Keep the written record for future reference or use; its required if you employ five or more people and can help you if an inspector asks what precautions you have taken, or if you become involved in any action or civil liability. It can also remind you to keep an eye on particular hazards and precautions.

review and revision1
Review and revision

Set a date for review of the assessment.

On review check that the precautions for each hazard still adequately control the risk. If not indicate the action needed. Note the outcome. If necessary complete a new page for your risk assessment.

reporting of injuries diseases and dangerous occurrences regulations 1995 riddor
Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR)

Persons responsible for the activities of people at work must report:

  • fatal accidents
  • major injury accidents/conditions
  • dangerous occurrences
  • accidents causing more than three days' incapacity for work
  • certain work-related diseases
  • certain matters dealing with the safe supply of gas.
riddor
RIDDOR

Major Injury Accidents/Conditions:

  • fracture other than to fingers, thumbs or toes;
  • amputation;
  • dislocation of the shoulder, hip, knee or spine;
  • loss of sight (temporary or permanent);
  • chemical or hot metal burn to the eye or any penetrating injury to the eye;
riddor1
RIDDOR

Major Injury Accidents/Conditions:

  • injury resulting from an electric shock or electrical burn leading to unconsciousness or requiring resuscitation or admittance to hospital for more than 24 hours;
  • any other injury: leading to hypothermia, heat-induced illness or unconsciousness; or requiring resuscitation; or requiring admittance to hospital for more than 24 hours;
riddor2
RIDDOR
  • unconsciousness caused by asphyxia or exposure to harmful substance or biological agent;
  • acute illness requiring medical treatment, or loss of consciousness arising from absorption of any substance by inhalation, ingestion or through the skin;
  • acute illness requiring medical treatment where there is reason to believe that this resulted from exposure to a biological agent or its toxins or infected material.
riddor3
RIDDOR

Accidents which Cause more than Three Consecutive Days' Incapacity for Work

  • if there is an accident connected with work (including an act of physical violence) and your employee, or a self-employed person working on your premises, suffers an over-three-day injury you must report it to the enforcing authority within ten days.
riddor4
RIDDOR

Accidents which Cause more than Three Consecutive Days' Incapacity for Work

  • An over-three-day injury is one which is not major but results in the injured person being away from work or unable to do their normal work for more than three days (including any days they would not normally be expected to work such as weekends, rest days or holidays) not counting the day of the injury itself.
health and safety first aid regulations 1981
Health and Safety (First-Aid) Regulations 1981

Duties specified

  • employer to provide first aid
  • employer to inform employees of the first aid arrangements
  • self-employed person to provide first aid equipment.
health and safety first aid regulations 19811
Health and Safety (First-Aid) Regulations 1981

Travelling First Aid Kits

  • Minimum quatities:
  • general guidance leaflet on first aid
  • 6 adhesive dressings
  • 1 large sterile unmedicated dressing
  • 2 triangular bandages
  • 2 safety pins
  • individually wrapped moist cleansing wipes
  • 1 pair of disposable gloves.