ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. Naming Saturated Hydrocarbons. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) names for the first 12 "straight-chain" or "normal" alkanes are:. Alkanes and Cycloalkanes. The simplest saturated hydrocarbons are called alkanes.
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π electrons delocalized
attached to a C atom that has bonds to
2 other C atoms.
The general formula for carboxylic acids is:
R represents an alkyl or an aryl groupCarboxylic Acids
Aldehydes and Ketones
When compounds contain more than one functional group, the order of precedence determines which groups are named with prefix or suffix forms. The highest precedence group takes the suffix, with all others taking the prefix form. However, double and triple bonds only take suffix form (-en and -yn) and are used with other suffixes.
These molecules are non-superimposable mirror images.
What is the difference between a and b D-glucose?
Glycosidic bonds: The anomeric hydroxyl group (axial) and a hydroxyl group of another sugar or some other compound can join together, splitting out water to form a glycosidic bond.
R-OH + HO-R'-->R-O-R' +H2O
Based on the number of carbons (e.g., 3, 4, 5, or 6) a monosaccharide is a triose, tetrose, pentose, or hexose, etc.
Disaccharides - two monosaccharides covalently linked
Oligosaccharides - a few monosaccharides covalently linked.
Polysaccharides - polymers consisting of chains of monosaccharide or disaccharide units
Sucrose, common table sugar, has a glycosidic bond linking the anomeric hydroxyls of glucose and fructose. Because the configuration at the anomeric carbon of glucose is a (O points down from the ring), the linkage is designated a(1®2). The full name is a-D-glucopyranosyl-(1®2)b-D- fructopyranose.
R = organic group with NO C=C bonds
C12 = Lauric acid
C16 = Palmitic acid
C18 = Stearic acid
What is the functional group in a fat or oil?
R = organic group with C=C bonds
C18 = oleic acid
Adding more peptide links ---> PROTEIN
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Table 11.12: others are PVC, acrylonitrile, polypropylene, polymethyl methacrylate
Styrene + butadiene