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Collaboration: An Essential Component of Education. Your Name, Title, and Date. Information for this presentation were found in the following resources: Bursuck, Friend, & Best (1999); Polloway & Patton (1999); Rusch & Chadsey (1998) , Hobbs & Westling (1998). The Effective Educator.

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An Essential Component of Education

Your Name, Title, and Date

Information for this presentation were found in the following resources: Bursuck, Friend, & Best (1999); Polloway & Patton (1999); Rusch & Chadsey (1998) , Hobbs & Westling (1998)


The Effective Educator

  • Establishes appropriate order the first
  • day/week of school
  • Affects and touches the lives of others
  • Has positive expectations for student success
  • Knows how to design lessons for student
  • mastery
  • Understands district's, schools', departments'
  • or grade level curriculum
  • Is flexible and adaptive
  • Teachers with proven research based practices
  • Works collaboratively with others


  • General Educators
  • Special Educators
  • Parents, Guardians
  • Students
  • Specialists and Related Service Providers
  • School Psychologists
  • Social Workers
  • Therapists (Speech, OT, PT…)
  • Interpreters
  • Paraprofessionals
  • Administrators
  • Community Agency Service Providers
  • Advocates
  • University Faculty
  • Teachers in Training
  • Others???

What is…



Collaboration Characteristics

- It is voluntary and cannot be forced -

personal choice/attitude

- It is based on parity - all participants

and contributions are valued

- It requires shared/mutual goals - at least 1

- It includes shared responsibility and

accountability - for participation, key

decisions, and"+" and "-" results

- It is based on shared resources -

they come in many packages

- It is emergent - it takes time,

encouragement, and appreciation essential


Collaboration Encounters

Conflict - is disagreement and opposition.

- occurs when divergent ideas,

interests, needs, and/or other

internal or external demands


- is essential.

- should not be feared.


Conflict involves….

Attacking a problem,

not a person.


Collaboration Encounters


Consensus - general agreement.

Occurs when respectful

consideration of divergent ideas and

needs to cooperatively reach a

solution that all team members can support …

"Can you live with it?"

"Is this a win - win situation?"

"Is the student coming first?"


Consensus does NOT involve

- compromise, or

- voting where majority rules


Stages of Teaming

- Forming

- Storming

- Norming

- Performing

- Peak- out


Strategies for Team Building

1. Have a purpose

2. Effectively communicate

(verbally and non-verbally)

3. Genuinely listen

- attend to the other person

without preoccupation

- be aware of the way things

are said

- be aware of what is NOT

being said


Step 1: Defining the problem

"What problems do we see

here?" List them

Step 2: Identifying causes

(Look at academic, social, or

behavioral factors-- contextual

variables--antecedents and

causal relationships)

Step 3: Setting objectives

"What are our preferred

outcomes regarding these

problems?" "How would

we like this situation to look

a year from now?"

Step 4: Identifying solution activities

Step 5: Monitoring success

(What, when, why, how and who?)


Maximizing Successful Problem-Solving

- Problem identification and planning should be carried out in the context of a structured team process.

- Planning and solution activities should involve everyone affected by the problem.

- Problems should be dealt with in an ongoing manner.

- Problems and solution activities should be documented.

- The planning and solution process should be flexible.

- Team members should reward positive results and celebrate their successes.


Models of Co-Teaching

* Tips for working collaboratively with educators,

volunteers and anyone who interacts with youth

- One Teaching, One Assisting

- Station Teaching - (Centers)

- Parallel Teaching - (Same content,

smaller groups)

- Alternative Teaching - (Larger

group and smaller group)

- Team Teaching


Co-Teaching Pragmatics

- Select approach to co-teaching

and co-planning

* Who plans the curriculum?

* Who adapts or develops

individualized curricula?

* Who plans instructional


* Who adapts or develops

individualized instructional



Co-Teaching Pragmatics (continued)

Evaluation Planning

* Who evaluates student

performance on a daily basis?

* Who develops periodic

assessment of student progress?

* Who evaluates success of

lessons, materials, and


* Who monitors IEP and

other record keeping

(i.e., report card) for students?


Co-Teaching Pragmatics (continued)

Classroom and Behavior Management

* How and when will team members


* Who communicates with parents and


* Who is responsible for support and

supervision of classroom assistants?

* Who decides on disciplinary procedures?

* Who carries out disciplinary procedures?

* Will team members rotate responsibilities?

If so, when and how?


Working with a Specialist or Consultant

1. Do your homework

2. Demonstrate your

concern with documentation

3. Participate actively

4. Carry out the consultant's

suggestions carefully

and systematically

5. Contact the consultant

if problems occur


Establishing Positive Relationships

with Students

1) Create open, professionally

appropriate dialogue with


 2) Systematically build better


 3) Communicate high



Creating Opportunities for Discussions

- Schedule regular individual

meeting times with students

- Eat lunch with students

- Arrange interviews

  - Attend student


  - Send notes to students

  - Use a suggestion box

  - Other ideas?


We need to:

1) Collect data about how we

interact with students in our


2) Analyze the data to see if we

are primarily supportive or


3) Determine whether we are

responding differently (more

or less) to some students

4) Attempt to alter our patterns of

interactions so that we

communicate high expectations

for all


Professional Behaviors that

Support Family Involvement

·        Accept families unconditionally

·        Develop collaborative


·        Listen empathetically

·        Share resources and information

·        Actively and reliably respond to


·        Highlight family expertise

·        Be available

·        Meet with families in friendly


·        Use personal stories for common



Gather General Information

·        Where were they born?

·        What are their thoughts about


·        What are the dreams and

hopes for the child(ren) in

the family?

·        What are the past school

experiences of the child?

·        Where do they live currently

and with who?

·        What are the role expectations

for family members?


Reflecting on Cultural Differences

  • · What in the lives of these families is
  • the most difficult to accept,
  • understand, and justify?
  • · What are the most important child-
  • rearing values demonstrated by
  • these families?
  • · What do you find in these values to
  • be in conflict with your own values?
  • What do you know about their
  • culture's view on the meaning of
  • disability?

Working with Paraprofessionals

  • Make a place for them - desk, storage…
  • Explain your classroom rules/expectations,
  • routines…confidentiality policies
  • Explain to children that they are to respect
  • everyone
  • Encourage paraprofessionals to support all
  • students…
  • Provide clear directions, model and examples…
  • Establish a systematic way to communicate -
  • weekly meetings, notebook…
  • Resolve conflicts privately
  • Encourage input - but be mindful that you are
  • the one accountable…






Information for this presentation were found in the following resources: Bursuck, Friend, & Best (1999); Polloway & Patton (1999); Rusch & Chadsey (1998); Hobbs & Westling (1998)