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APOLLO SPACECRAFT. Daniel McCaffery Jeff Robinson Kyle Smith Jason Tang Brad Thompson. Project Apollo. The national effort that enabled Astronaut Neil Armstrong to speak those words as he stepped onto the lunar surface, fulfilled a dream as old as humanity.

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apollo spacecraft

APOLLOSPACECRAFT

Daniel McCaffery

Jeff Robinson

Kyle Smith

Jason Tang

Brad Thompson

project apollo
Project Apollo
  • The national effort that enabled Astronaut Neil Armstrong to speak those words as he stepped onto the lunar surface, fulfilled a dream as old as humanity.
  • But Project Apollo's goals went beyond landing Americans on the Moon and returning them safely to Earth:
    • To establish the technology to meet other national interests in space
    • To achieve preeminence in space for the United States
    • To carry out a program of scientific exploration of the Moon
    • To develop man's capability to work in the lunar environment

"That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.”

design overview
Design Overview
  • Apollo was a three-part spacecraft:
    • the command module (CM) - the crew's quarters and flight control section
    • the service module (SM) - for the propulsion and spacecraft support systems (when together, the two modules are called CSM)
    • the lunar module (LM) - to take two of the crew to the lunar surface, support them on the Moon, and return them to the CSM in lunar orbit.
  • The flight mode, lunar orbit rendezvous, was selected in 1962. The boosters for the program were the Saturn IB for Earth orbit flights and the Saturn V for lunar flights.
the rocket
The Saturn V Rocket

364 Feet Tall

Empty weight: 525,500 pounds

Full weight: 6,100,000 pounds

LES Motor

8,910 pounds

Serves as an abort mechanism

Serves to protect the CM in Launch from Aerodynamic heat

Re-configuration

The Rocket
the launch
The Launch
  • Three Stages
    • Stage 1
      • Five engines
      • 7.5 million pounds of thrust
    • Stage 2
      • Burns 450 tons of fuel in less than 7 minutes
      • 200,000 pounds of thrust
    • Stage 3 – S-IVB
      • One engine
      • Burns 230,000 pounds in just over 7 minutes.
service module
Service Module
  • Size and Weight
    • 51,243 lbs
    • 24’ 6” tall
    • Diameter = 12’ 10”
  • Functions
    • Attitude control
    • House hardware
command module
Command Module
  • Holds all three astronauts
  • 11 feet 5 inches high, base diameter of 12 feet 10 inches
  • Weighs 12,250 lbs
  • Bulkhead
    • Ranges in thickness from 0.25” to 1.5”
  • On Board Computer
    • 1 MHz
    • 36K Memory
    • 2000 Watts
  • Heat Shield
    • Ranges in thickness from 0.7” to 2.7”
  • Heat shield protects spacecraft from heat built up during re-entry
  • Multiple onboard systems
  • Hatch changed after Apollo I
command module1
Command Module
  • Tunnel connects Command Module to Lunar Module
    • Allows astronauts to go between modules
    • 32 inches in diameter
    • Made of sheet-aluminum honeycomb only 1/4 inch thick
lunar module
Lunar Module
  • Made only for operations near or on Moon (no heat shield)
  • Made up of two stages (Ascent Stage/Descent Stage)
  • First flight: January 22, 1968
  • 9 manned flights, the first on March 3, 1969
  • Prime contractor was Grumman Aerospace
  • Cost $50 million
lunar module1
Lunar Module
  • 22 feet 11 inches high, 31 feet wide
  • Weight is between 33,000 and 34,000 lbs
  • Made up of two separate stages, attached with explosive bolts
  • Covered in Mylar and aluminum thermal and micrometeoroid shields
  • Both stages are together when landing on the Moon
ascent and descent stage
Ascent and Descent Stage
  • Ascent Stage
    • Three compartments (235 cubic feet of cabin volume)
    • 12 feet 4 inches high, 14 feet 1 inch in diameter
    • Used to bring astronauts back from Moon to Command Module
  • Descent Stage
    • 10 feet 7 inches tall, 14 feet 1 inch in diameter
    • Four landing legs support lunar module
    • 36-inch footpads with sensing probes
propulsion system
Propulsion System
  • Reaction Control System (RCS)
    • 4 sets of four 100-lb thrusters
    • Used for stabilization, attitude control, separation
  • Descent Stage Engine
    • Used for "braking" and landing on the moon
    • Throttleable between 1,050 and 6,300 lbs (max. thrust of 9,870 lbs)
    • Can be gimbaled six degrees in any direction
  • Ascent Stage Engine
    • Used to bring spacecraft back to Command Module
    • Fires once separation is completed
    • Full throttle only, cannot be gimbaled
    • Thrust of 3,500 lbs
  • All propulsion systems use a helium-pressurized aerozine-50 and nitrogen tetroxide propellant
landing on the moon
Landing on the Moon
  • Lunar Module comes in at an angle, not straight down
  • Begins braking 260 nm before touchdown
  • Descends last 150 feet vertically at 3 ft/s
exploring the surface of the moon
Exploring the Surface of the Moon
  • Scientific Instrument Package
    • Remote Sensing
    • CMP uses it to survey the moon’s surface while in orbit
  • Lunar Rover
    • Carried in compartment added to bottom of descent stage
    • Allowed astronauts to traverse ~20 miles during stay on moon and explore more of surface.
  • Ascension
    • Engine uses hydrazine and dimethylhydrazine as fuel
    • Nitrogen tetroxide as an oxidizer
    • 3500 pounds of thrust
return
Return
  • Engine lifts the upper part module and carries it back to lunar orbit
  • Lunar module rendezvous and docks with the command module
  • After astronauts and specimens are transferred to the CM, the CSM undocks from the LEM and left in lunar orbit
  • CSM once again fires main engine to break out of lunar orbit and put into return trajectory to Earth
  • CM separates from SM and re-enters atmosphere
re entry
Re-entry
  • Heat shield dissipates enough heat of re-entry to protect it and astronauts inside
  • 24,000 ft from surface, heat shield releases and 2 drogue parachutes deploys to orient and slows down module
  • After that, 3 main parachutes deploys to land module safely in the ocean
achievements
Achievements
  • Apollo 1: Fire on launch pad killed all three astronauts
  • Apollo 2-6: Unmanned
  • Apollo 7: Demonstrated the viability of the CSM to make it to the moon, and the ability to rendezvous with the lunar lander
  • Apollo 8: Photographed landing sights, Demonstrated translunar injection, and communication and navigation during lunar orbit
  • Apollo 9: First Apollo manned docking, Demonstrated intervehicular crew transfer
  • Apollo 10: Simulation of lunar landing while in lunar orbit. Lunar Module taken to within 50,000 feet of lunar surface
  • Apollo 11: Landed on the moon and brought crew back successfully
  • Apollo 12: Deployed Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package, precision landing made using automatic guidance
  • Apollo 13: No lunar landing due to rupture of service module oxygen tank. Gained experience in crew rescue
  • Apollo 14: Lunar surface and lunar orbit science experiments
  • Apollo 15: First use of the lunar rover
  • Apollo 16: First study of highlands area
  • Apollo 17: Last moon landing, geological surveying
  • Apollo-Soyuz: First docking of spacecraft built by different nations
after lunar missions
After Lunar Missions
  • Skylab
    • America’s first experimental space station, it conducted study of the sun and research into human adaptability to long-term zero-g exposure