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Digitally-Bypassed Transducers: Interfacing Digital Mockups to Real-Time Medical Equipment. Scott Sirowy*, Tony Givargis ‡ and Frank Vahid*‡. *Department of Computer Science and Engineering University of California, Riverside {ssirowy,vahid}@cs.ucr.edu. ‡Center for Embedded Computer Systems

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Digitally bypassed transducers interfacing digital mockups to real time medical equipment

Digitally-Bypassed Transducers: Interfacing Digital Mockups to Real-Time Medical Equipment

Scott Sirowy*, Tony Givargis‡ and Frank Vahid*‡

*Department of Computer Science and Engineering

University of California, Riverside

{ssirowy,vahid}@cs.ucr.edu

‡Center for Embedded Computer Systems

University of California, Irvine

givargis@ics.uci.edu

This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation


Introduction medical device sw development
Introduction: to Real-Time Medical EquipmentMedical Device SW Development

Ventilator

  • PC Simulation

    • Simulate medical device and physiological system completely in software

    • Supports rapid software changes, faster than real-time execution, and avoids potential safety concerns

Matlab, MML, VisSim, etc

Lung


Introduction medical device sw development1
Introduction: to Real-Time Medical EquipmentMedical Device SW Development

  • Physical Mockups

    • Later in development, migrate simulated physiological models to physical models

    • Used when medical device software is running on actual hardware

    • Potential inability to adapt to new features


Introduction medical device sw development2

Ventilator to Real-Time Medical Equipment

Matlab, MML, VisSim, etc

Lung

Introduction:Medical Device SW Development

Physical Mockups

PC Simulation

(Flexibility, speed, no real hardware)

(Real Hardware, more realistic, costly, some

scenarios difficult to model )

  • Digital Mockups

    • Combines the benefits of faster than real-time execution of simulation with advantages of developing software on real device

    • Potentially cheaper than physical mockups too


Introduction medical device sw development3
Introduction: to Real-Time Medical EquipmentMedical Device SW Development

  • PC Simulation

    • Supports rapid software changes, faster than real-time execution, and avoids potential safety concerns

  • Physical Mockups

    • Used when medical device software is running on actual hardware

    • Potential inability to adapt to new features

  • Digital Mockups

    • Combines the benefits of faster than real-time execution of simulation with advantages of developing software on real device

    • Potentially cheaper than physical mockups too


Introduction medical device sw development physical mockups

Ventilator to Real-Time Medical Equipment

Physical Lungs Mockup

Introduction:Medical Device SW DevelopmentPhysical Mockups

Physical Tube

SW

Core

Pressure and Volume Sensors

Transducers


Introduction medical device sw development digital mockups

Ventilator to Real-Time Medical Equipment

Introduction:Medical Device SW DevelopmentDigital Mockups

Left Unconnected

Digital Lungs Mockup

SW

Core

Digital Interface


Digital mockups digitally bypassed transducers
Digital Mockups to Real-Time Medical EquipmentDigitally-Bypassed Transducers

= Digitally-bypassed

Transducer

Medical Device

Digital Mockup

Input 1

Output 1

(Digital)

Sensed

Input

Input n

Output n

(Digital)

Sensed

Input

SW

Core

Physical Value

Input 1

Output 1

(Digital)

Physical Value

Input n

Output n

(Digital)

Control/Synchronization Channel

Digital Bypass


Digital mockups digitally bypassed transducers1
Digital Mockups to Real-Time Medical EquipmentDigitally-Bypassed Transducers

Output Digitally-Bypassed Transducer

Input Digitally-Bypassed Transducer

Bypass Transducer

Digital output

(from medical

device)

Digital input

(to medical

device)

Digital

input

Sensed Value

Digital

output

Physical Value

Transducer

Transducer

  • Simple and inexpensive hardware additions enable bypassing the transducer inputs and outputs, and enable working completely in the digital domain


Digital mockups medical device digital mockup synchronization
Digital Mockups to Real-Time Medical EquipmentMedical Device-Digital Mockup Synchronization

  • Rate Synchronization: Dedicated Control/Synchronization Channel used to exchange connectivity information, sampling rates, and mockup execution speeds

All communication done on the

bi-directional control/synchronization channel

Step 1: On initial connection,

digital connectivity handshake

Digital Mockup

Medical Device

Step 1

Step 2: Medical device sends

required sampling rate

Step 2

Step 3: Medical device and

Digital Mockup agree on

execution speed (real time, 2X

faster, etc)

Step 3

Step 4

Step 4: Begin Execution


Medical software development with digitally bypassed transducers

Digital Lungs Mockup to Real-Time Medical Equipment

Digital Lungs Mockup

SW

Core

SW

Core

SW

Core

Ventilator

Ventilator

Ventilator

Medical Software Development with Digitally-Bypassed Transducers

  • All Digitally-Bypassed

  • Transducers

Physical Interface

Tube

2) Combined Digital and

Transducers

  • Full Interaction with

  • Physical System


Digitally bypassed transducers early prototype
Digitally-Bypassed Transducers to Real-Time Medical EquipmentEarly Prototype

Medical Device (Pacemaker)

Control/Synchronization Channel

Open leads for real physical

analog connections

Digital Mockup

of a Heart

Transducers

Digital Inputs/Outputs


Medical software development prototype results
Medical Software Development to Real-Time Medical EquipmentPrototype Results

  • Heart Digital Mockup and Pacemaker

    • Implemented both pacemaker model and digital model using a number of off-the-shelf microcontrollers

    • Digital Mockup based off a simple physical heart model

    • Able to test pacemaker in real-time, and faster and slower than real time


Medical software development prototype results1
Medical Software Development to Real-Time Medical EquipmentPrototype Results

  • Lung Digital Mockup and Ventilator

    • Lung Mockup Ventilator based off of models from the NSR Physiome Projects

    • Plan on augmenting a real ventilator with digitally-bypassed transducers in the near future


Conclusions
Conclusions to Real-Time Medical Equipment

With a small amount of hardware and software additions, we introduced the digitally-bypassed transducer

Digitally-bypassed transducers enable interfacing to digital mockups, enable medical software development at faster than real-time execution while still developing software on the real medical device