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Advanced Hair Removal. Pamela Hill, R.N. Helen R. Bickmore. Hair Removal Methods. Permanent Hair Removal Permanent Reduction Temporary Hair Removal Camouflage - bleaching. Shaving. Most used Least effective Cut hair at surface of skin Risk of cutting Harmful side effects:

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advanced hair removal

Advanced Hair Removal

Pamela Hill, R.N.

Helen R. Bickmore

hair removal methods
Hair Removal Methods
  • Permanent Hair Removal
  • Permanent Reduction
  • Temporary Hair Removal
  • Camouflage - bleaching
shaving
Shaving
  • Most used
  • Least effective
  • Cut hair at surface of skin
  • Risk of cutting
  • Harmful side effects:
  • Pseudofolliulitis Barbae
  • Razor Burn
  • Electric Razor does not cut as close to surface of skin
depilatories
Depilatories
  • Thioglycolate
  • Breaks down hair protein (Cystine)
  • Cystine – amino acid that bonds hair together,
  • Cystine contains sulfur
  • Reduces hair to a gel like substance
  • Disadvantages: effective for short time
  • Leaves shadow of former hair
  • Skin irration
bleaching
Bleaching
  • Lightening hair to reduce appearance
  • Hydrogen peroxide
  • Don’t use on pelvis area or eyes
  • Done at home
  • Camouflages
  • Does not remove hair
tweezing
Tweezing
  • Temporary Hair Removal
  • Hair & Root removed from follicle
  • Painful
  • Difficult in larger areas
  • Need steady hand
  • High pain threshold
  • Need length of hair to remove
waxing
Waxing
  • Effective methods of temporary hair removal on large areas
  • Practioner must be experienced
electrolysis
Electrolysis
  • Needle inserted into hair follicle
  • Energy of high frequency or galvanic current destroys derma papilla
  • Process injures follicle and renders it useless
  • Requires each hair be treated individually
  • Can be expensive, time consuming and a painful methods of hair removal
  • Electrolysis is as valid today as it ever was
laser hair removal
Laser Hair Removal
  • Most popular method of hair removal is laser light
  • Not for everyone
  • Best candidate needs light skin and dark hair
  • Skin can be damaged
  • Extensive training needed for successful outcomes
  • Non-responders are patients that do not respond to laser hair removal
diseases that cause hair growth
Diseases That Cause Hair Growth
  • Hypertrichosis
  • Hirsutism
  • Adrenogential syndrome
  • PCOS
  • Achard-Thiers syndrome
  • Cushing’s syndrome
training of technicians
Training of Technicians
  • Needs extensive training
  • Knowledge of Contraindications of procedures
  • Course should include clinic protocol
  • Training with extensive clinical time
  • Anatomy & Physiology
continuing education
Continuing Education
  • Privilege
  • Annual recertification of office
  • Clinical recertification with score sheet of procedures
  • 90% score required of clinical skills
  • Continuing Education offer by AEA, SCMHR, and CTAO
osha safety standards
OSHA & Safety Standards
  • Must be included in training
  • Safety and sanitary issues must be addressed
  • Bloodborne pathogens
  • Universal precautions
  • Original name for OSHA manual was the Safety Bill of Rights
  • Every office should have a safety manual and train staff yearly
anatomy physiology of hair skin
Anatomy & Physiology of Hair & Skin
  • Fun facts:
  • Humans shed millions of dead skin flakes every minute
  • Adult skin covers 2 square meters ( about the size of shower curtain)
  • Weights about 7 pounds
  • 300 million skin cells
  • Touch is first sense to develop
  • Skin is sensitive enough to feel the weight of a mosquito as it lands
  • Each square inch contains ten hairs
  • 15 sebaceous glands
  • 100 sweat glands
  • 3.2 feet of blood vessels
function of skin
Function of Skin
  • Appendages a smaller part of a greater part of the skin
  • Pilosebaceous unit
  • Sweat glands
  • Nail & Hair
  • External substances can absorbed through appendages of skin
layers of skin
Layers of Skin
  • Epidermis
  • Dermis
  • Subcutaneous – also known as hypodermis
transepidermal water loss tewl
Transepidermal Water Loss (TEWL)
  • Our body constantly loses water as long as we are not submerged in water
  • Water in the epidermis decreases the closer it gets to the surface
  • Water makes up 70% - 75% of the weight of layers beneath
  • 10% - 15% of weight of stratum corneum
  • When to much water evaporates from our bodies our bodies suffer
tewl continues
TEWL - Continues
  • Stratum Corneum - contains a natural compound that gives skin cells their ability to bind in water (NMF)
  • NMF - helps keep the skin soft and moistened in dry climates
  • NMF- is composed of amino acids and filaggrin, water–soluble chemical capable of absorbing large quantities of water
  • Filaggrin - essential for the regulations of epidermal homeostasis – it is a filament-associated protein that binds to keratin fibers
other water loss
Other Water Loss
  • Transdermal water loss (TEWL) and natural moisturizing factor(NMF) has nothing to with water loss associated while sweating
  • Consumption of water does not improves hydration levels in the skin
  • Drinking water improves water level inside the body and is used there
  • The best way to rehydrate the skin is by applying a topical moisturizer
  • NMF is diminished by age and excessive exposure to soap
  • This is key to understanding the phenomenon of dry skin
stratum basal
Stratum Basal
  • Also known as the Stratum Germinativum
  • Lowest layer of epidermis
  • Mitosis takes place forming new epidermal tissue , replacing dead surface cells
  • Sun light react with tyrosine (amino acid present in melanocytes) to give protection from the ultraviolet rays
specialized epidermal cells
Specialized Epidermal Cells
  • Keratinocytes – basic skin cells that make up the skin and move up replacing old cells
  • Melanaocytes – Secrete pigment that gives color to skin, hair, and eye
  • Langerhan’s cells – patrol the epidermis for foreign invaders ingest them, for removal by the lymphatic system
  • Markel cells – function unclear, likely involved in sensation, usually close to nerve ending, numerous around the lip, hard palate, palms, fingers and foot pads
specialized epidermal cells1
Specialized Epidermal Cells
  • Merkel cells are source of rare but aggressive skin cancer called Merkel cell carcinoma
  • Usually begins on the in the germinating layer and the hair follicle
skin pigmentation
Skin Pigmentation
  • The number of melanocytes is the same for all people
  • The major contribution to depth of skin of color is melanocyte activity rather than quantity
  • Melanocytes protect the skin from UV rays, never assume that darker skin is better protected from skin cancer
skin pigment
Skin Pigment
  • Malpighian is a skin layer made of stratrum mucosum and the stratum germinativum
  • Vitiligo affects 4% of the world’s population
  • Vitiligo affects the melanocytes of the skin causing hyper pigmentation that is irreversible
  • Possibly caused by an autoimmune disorder that destroys the melanocytes
the dermis
The Dermis

Referred to as the living layer or true skin made of connective tissue

Crisscrossed with 3 types of fibers that lend strength and elasticity

Reticular – a protein fiber

Collagen – fiber made of protein that gives skin its form and strength

Elastin– protein that creates stability

Dermal-epidermal junction - on distal side it attaches to the subcutaneous

Superficial side the dermis holds the epidermis

papillary dermis
Papillary Dermis
  • Papillary dermis contains elastic collagen and reticular fibers
  • Reticular fibers are cone-shaped, finer like projections called papillae or rete-pegs which protrude into the epidermis, locking the layers together
  • Also contains the capillary blood vessels, small nerve endings, and lymphatic vessels
  • The capillaries help regulate temperature of the body
  • Vessels that widen in the rete-pegs cause broken capillaries
papillary dermis1
Papillary Dermis
  • Papillary Dermis contain glycosaminoglycans (GAG) a variety of “chains” that are made o polysaccharide ( a type of carbohydrate)
  • GAG re attracted to water and are capable of binding up to 1,000 times their weight in water
  • This moisture content is extremely important to electrologists
reticular dermis
Reticular Dermis
  • Thickest layer of skin, located beneath the papillary dermis and rests on a thick pad of fat which provides the real anchor of the skin
  • Composed off dense bundles of collagen fibers The fibers run in parallel layers and are denser closer to the papillary layer
specialized dermal cells
Specialized Dermal cells
  • Fibroblast Cells are the command center of the dermis – directing production of collagen, elastin, reticulin
  • Mast Cells are located in the dermis – protect skin against invasion and infection
  • Ground substance - located in the reticular dermis and papillary dermis provides nutrients and removes waste – integral to the healing process; wounds heal better because of the creation of moisture from the ground of the substance
hypodermis or subcutaneous tissue
Hypodermis or Subcutaneous Tissue
  • It’s the fatty layer beneath the dermis
  • Gives the body contour and smoothness
  • Acts as an energy source and protective cushion for the outer skin
  • This layer separates the dermis from the underlying muscular of the body
  • Its crisscrossed with connective tissues and layers interspersed with fat to hold it together
  • Fat pockets accumulate between the connective tissue bands beyond the ability of the connective tissue to hold it smooth, the appearance is called “cellulite” or “orange-peel”
ionization principles
Ionization Principles
  • To understand galvanic current, one must first understand the science of ionization and the use of positive and negative poles to separate substances into ions.
  • An ion is an atom or group of atoms carrying an electrical charge.
  • When negatively charged using the cathode pole, the ions are called anions, and the process is called anaphoresis.
  • When positively charged using the anode pole, the ions are called cations and the process is called cataphoresis.
  • Theanode cord for an electrolysis epilator is usually red, and the cathode is usually black.
preelectrolysis epilation technique peet
PreelectrolysisEpilation Technique (PEET)
  • The hair is plucked from the untreated follicle, the needle is inserted into the empty follicle, current is applied.
  • Technique is worth utilizing if the hair has been inadvertently tweezed.
postepilation reentry technique pert
Postepilation Reentry Technique (PERT)
  • Standard electrolysis treatment is performed first, with the hair in the follicle. Then again, one the hair has been epilated.
  • Equivalent of double-dosing
  • If it is thought or observed that the epilated hair has not been completely destroyed, must take care with this technique not to overtreat
postepilation sustained entry technique pest
Postepilation Sustained Entry Technique (PEST)
  • Is acomplised by using the two handed method
  • First perform the standard electrolysis treatment to the hair follicle, and then, while leaving the needle in place with one hand, epilate the hair with the other.
  • Repeat the current application to the empty follicle and then remove the needle.
pest and pert
PEST and PERT
  • PEST is like PERT but by leaving the probe in the follicle, it insures that the same follicle is being retreated.
post care
Post Care
  • Tanning in a tanning booth or natural sunlight should be avoided when undergoing electrolysis treatments, meaning treatments once every two weeks.
  • Presence of erythema while tanning, will cause skin to hyperpigmentate
  • Client should protect the skin from ultraviolet rays with SPF 15
  • SPF 30 can be used on the body but is usually too clogging for the face
  • Using SPF 15 and reapplying it after a few hours is as effective as SPF 30, but less clogging
steroid dependent dermatoses
Steroid Dependent Dermatoses
  • A condition in which the long-term overuse of topical steroid creams cause the skin to require continued usage to keep the offending condition away