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Performance Evaluation of Routing Algorithms in Wireless Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks. Itrat Rasool Quadri ST ID 220248 COE-543 Wireless and Mobile Networks. Table of Contents. Introduction MANET Routing Protocols DSDV (Destination Sequenced Distance Vector) DSR (Dynamic Source Routing)
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Performance Evaluation of Routing Algorithms in Wireless Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks ItratRasool Quadri ST ID 220248 COE-543 Wireless and Mobile Networks
Table of Contents • Introduction • MANET Routing Protocols • DSDV (Destination Sequenced Distance Vector) • DSR (Dynamic Source Routing) • AODV (Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector) • ZRP (Zone Routing Protocol) • TORA (Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm) • STAR (Source Tree Adaptive Routing) • Factors Involved in Simulation Based Evaluation • Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols in Real Environment • Effect of Mobility and Workload • Performance Comparisons • Case Studies • Related Work • Future Work • Conclusion
DSDV (Destination Sequenced Distance Vector) Routing Protocol • Each Routing Table List all destinations and number of hops to each • Each Route is tagged with a sequence number originated by destination • Updates are transmitted periodically and when there is any significant topology change • Routing information is transmitted by broadcast
DSR (Dynamic Source Routing) Features: - On Demand (Reactive) Routing Protocol - Source Routing DSR is based on two mechanisms • Route Discovery: - Route Request - Route Reply • Route Maintenance: - Route Error Each node maintains Route Cache
Lookup Route Cache for route A - E Route found? Start Route Discovery Protocol no Buffer packet yes Continue normal processing yes Write route in packet header Packet buffered? Route Discovery finished Send packet to first host in header no done Route Discovery A sends E a message wait
Accept route request packet Discard route request yes no Host’s address already in route record yes Discard route request Append myAddr to route record no no myAddr=target Store <init,id> in list Send route reply packet Broadcast packet done When any host receives a route request <init, id> in list of recently seen requests? yes
AODV (Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector) • Pure on-demand protocol • Node does not need to maintain knowledge of another node unless it communicates with it • Broadcast discovery packets only when necessary • Distinguish between local connectivity and general topology maintenance • To disseminate Information about changes in local connectivity to those neighboring nodes that are likely to need it
ZRP (Zone Routing Protocol) • Hybrid Protocol – combines advantages of Reactive & Proactive Protocols • Proactively maintains information within a local zone • Reactively routes to out-of-zone nodes • Adjustable range of nodes
ZRP Example 1 Hop 2 Hops Multi Hops B F A C D E G H
TORA (Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm) • On demand, source initiated routing • Distributed in that nodes only maintain one hop knowledge • Provides multiple routes to alleviate congestion • Creates loop free routes • Handles partitions by erasing invalid routes.
TORA (Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm) Algorithm Overview • Route Creation: establish sequence of directed links from source to destination. this is done by forming destination oriented DAG • Route Maintenance: Reaction to topology changes in order to reestablish routes • Route Erasure: When a partition is detected in the network, all invalid routes must be removed from the network. this is done by making directed routes undirected
STAR (Source Tree Adaptive Routing) • Routers in star communicate their source routing trees to their neighbors either incrementally or in atomic updates • It performs efficient routing in packet radio networks using link-state information.
Factors Involved in Simulation Based Evaluation • Environmental Factors Size or shape of simulation area: This factor, for its size, can be related to the node density. If area shape is more rectangular, it leads to longer routes • Radio Radio transmission range in meters Bandwidth in kBytes/second MAC Protocol • Data Flow Buffers in packets Packet size in bytes Traffic type • Mobility Model Mobility, effects almost all of the outcomes, especially the protocol accuracy
Effect of Mobility and Workload • End-to-end Delay • End-to-end Throughput • Control Packets Overhead • Successful Packet Delivery • Path Optimality • Energy Consumption • Successful Packet Delivery • End-to-end Delay • End-to-end Throughput • Control Packets Overhead • Path Optimality • Power Consumption
Related Work • PRNet (Packet Radio Network) • ARP • SSA (Signal Stability Based Adaptive) • ABR (Associativity Based Routing Routing)
Future Work • DSDV • AODV • ZRP • TORA
Conclusion • Quick route maintenance • Power awareness (AODV) • Processing (DSDV, TORA) • Control Messages (TORA, DSR) • Load Distribution (AODV) • Choice for networks (AODV, DSDV)