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13. Inventory Management. Inventory. Independent Demand. Dependent Demand. A. C(2). B(4). D(2). E(1). D(3). F(2). Independent demand is uncertain. Dependent demand is certain. Inventory Models. Independent demand – finished goods, items that are ready to be sold E.g. a computer

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Inventory Management


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    1. 13 Inventory Management

    2. Inventory Independent Demand Dependent Demand A C(2) B(4) D(2) E(1) D(3) F(2) Independent demand is uncertain. Dependent demand is certain.

    3. Inventory Models • Independent demand – finished goods, items that are ready to be sold • E.g. a computer • Dependent demand – components of finished products • E.g. parts that make up the computer

    4. Types of Inventories • Raw materials & purchased parts • Partially completed goods called work in progress • Finished-goods inventories • (manufacturingfirms) or merchandise (retail stores)

    5. Types of Inventories (Cont’d) • Replacement parts, tools, & supplies • Goods-in-transit to warehouses or customers

    6. Functions of Inventory • To meet anticipated demand • To smooth production requirements • To protect against stock-outs

    7. Functions of Inventory (Cont’d) • To help hedge against price increases • To permit operations • To take advantage of quantity discounts

    8. Objective of Inventory Control • To achieve satisfactory levels of customer service while keeping inventory costs within reasonable bounds • Level of customer service • Costs of ordering and carrying inventory

    9. Effective Inventory Management • A system to keep track of inventory • A reliable forecast of demand • Knowledge of lead times • Reasonable estimates of • Holding costs • Ordering costs • Shortage costs • A classification system

    10. Inventory Counting Systems • Periodic System Physical count of items made at periodic intervals • Perpetual Inventory System System that keeps track of removals from inventory continuously, thus monitoring current levels of each item

    11. Inventory Counting Systems (Cont’d) 0 214800 232087768 • Two-Bin System - Two containers of inventory; reorder when the first is empty • Universal Bar Code - Bar code printed on a label that hasinformation about the item to which it is attached

    12. Key Inventory Terms • Lead time: time interval between ordering and receiving the order • Holding (carrying) costs: cost to carry an item in inventory for a length of time, usually a year • Ordering costs: costs of ordering and receiving inventory • Shortage costs: costs when demand exceeds supply

    13. ABC Classification System High A Annual $ value of items B C Low Low High Percentage of Items Classifying inventory according to some measure of importance and allocating control efforts accordingly. A-very important B- mod. important C- least important

    14. Economic Order Quantity Models • Economic order quantity (EOQ) model • The order size that minimizes total annual cost • Economic production model • Quantity discount model

    15. Assumptions of EOQ Model • Only one product is involved • Annual demand requirements known • Demand is even throughout the year • Lead time does not vary • Each order is received in a single delivery • Inventory Level = 0 when new order just arrived • There are no quantity discounts

    16. The Inventory Cycle Profile of Inventory Level Over Time Q Usage rate Quantity on hand Reorder point Time Place order Receive order Receive order Receive order Place order Lead time

    17. Total Cost Q D S H + 2 Q Annual carrying cost Annual ordering cost Total cost = + TC =

    18. Cost Minimization Goal Annual Cost Ordering Costs Order Quantity (Q) (optimal order quantity) QO

    19. Minimum Total Cost Q D S H = 2 Q The total cost curve reaches its minimum where the Carrying Cost = Ordering Cost

    20. Deriving the EOQ Using calculus, we take the derivative of the total cost function and set the derivative (slope) equal to zero and solve for Q.

    21. Economic Production Quantity (EPQ) Assumptions Only one product is involved Annual demand requirements are known Usage rate is constant Usage occurs continually, but production occurs periodically The production rate is constant Lead time does not vary There are no quantity discounts 12-21

    22. EPQ: Inventory Profile Q Production and usage Usage only Production and usage Usage only Production and usage Q* Cumulative production Imax Amount on hand Time 12-22

    23. Quantity Discount Model Quantity discount Price reduction offered to customers for placing large orders 12-23

    24. Quantity Discounts 12-24

    25. Quantity Discounts 12-25

    26. When to Reorderwith EOQ Ordering • Reorder Point - When the quantity on hand of an item drops to this amount, the item is reordered • Safety Stock - Stock that is held in excess of expected demand due to variable demand rate and/or lead time. • Service Level - Probability that demand will not exceed supply during lead time.

    27. Determinants of the Reorder Point • The rate of demand • The lead time • Demand and/or lead time variability • Stockout risk (safety stock)

    28. Safety Stock reduce risk of stockout during lead time

    29. Reorder Point Service level Risk of a stockout Probability of no stockout Quantity ROP Expected demand Safety stock 0 z z-scale The ROP based on a normal Distribution of lead time demand

    30. Single Period Model • Single period model: model for ordering of perishables and other items with limited useful lives • Shortage cost: generally the unrealized profits per unit • Excess cost: difference between purchase cost and salvage value of items left over at the end of a period

    31. Single Period Model • Continuous stocking levels • Identifies optimal stocking levels • Optimal stocking level balances unit shortage and excess cost • Discrete stocking levels • Service levels are discrete rather than continuous • Desired service level is equaled or exceeded

    32. Optimal Stocking Level Ce Cs Service Level Quantity So Balance point Cs Cs + Ce Service level = Cs = Shortage cost per unitCe = Excess cost per unit

    33. Example 15 Ce Cs Service Level = 75% Quantity • Ce = $0.20 per unit • Cs = $0.60 per unit • Service level = Cs/(Cs+Ce) = .6/(.6+.2) • Service level = .75 Stockout risk = 1.00 – 0.75 = 0.25

    34. Operations Strategy • Too much inventory • Tends to hide problems • Easier to live with problems than to eliminate them • Costly to maintain • Wise strategy • Reduce lot sizes • Reduce safety stock