USE OF FORENSIC SCIENCES IN POLICE INVESTIGATION. ORDER OF PRESENTATION. History Mission Vision Core Competencies Capabilities and Functions The Evidence and its Use SOCO Flow Chart SOCO Video Presentation. HISTORY OF CRIME LABORATORY.
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ORDER OF PRESENTATION • History • Mission • Vision • Core Competencies • Capabilities and Functions • The Evidence and its Use • SOCO Flow Chart • SOCO Video Presentation
HISTORY OF CRIME LABORATORY The PNP Crime Laboratory was first organized as a Fingerprint Section of the G-2 Division of the Military Police Command Armed Forces in the West Pacific of the United States Army (AFWESPAC) in May 19, 1945. It was upgraded into a branch and was renamed as Crime Laboratory Branch of the Criminal Investigation Service, which was the investigative arm of the Philippine Constabulary (PC).
The laboratory underwent several reorganizations and changes of names. It was reorganized on May 26, 1959 as a separate unit of the PC under Table of Organization and Equipment 3-07 (TO & E 3-07) of the Armed Forces of the Philippines and was renamed as PC Forensic Laboratory. On December 1, 1960, pursuant TO & E 03, the unit was renamed as the PC Central Crime Laboratory, and on June 28, 1961, it was activated as a unit of the Armed Forces of the Philippines pursuant to Special Order Number 453 GHQ AFP.
The National Headquarters of the Crime Laboratory in Camp Crame was constructed during the term of then Philippine Constabulary Brigadier General Vicente Raval on December 4, 1968. The construction was completed on July 22, 1969, coinciding with its official designation as the PC Crime Laboratory (PCCL) pursuant to Headquarters Philippine Constabulary General Order Number 23.
The crime laboratory saw continuous improvement in the following years in order to serve the people more effectively. In 1975, scientific pieces of equipment were acquired through the War Reparations Program of the Japanese Government. Organizationally, the crime laboratory was expanded in 1978, under the authority of HPC GO Nr 23 wherein twelve (12) regional units were established. With the merging of the Philippine Constabulary and the Integrated National Police (INP) on May 16, 1985, PCCL was re-designated as PC/INP Crime Laboratory Service (CLS) as per HPC GO Nr 64.
By virtue of Republic Act 6975 (DILG) enacted in 1990, the PC/INP was abolished, paving way to the creation of the Philippine National Police. Consequently, the PNP Crime Laboratory Service was established as an Administrative Support Unit on January 30, 1990. In 1996, NAPOLCOM Resolution Nr 96-058 spelled out the streamlining program of the PNP and designated the PNPCLS as a National Operational Support Unit. Likewise, it dropped the word Service from the crime laboratory’s name and would simply be known as the PNP Crime Laboratory.
MISSION To provide scientific method of investigation and technical support to the PNP and other government/non-government investigative agencies through fieldwork, scene of crime operation, forensic laboratory service, criminalistics training and research.
VISION The men and women of the PNP Crime Laboratory are committed to the vision of a professional, dynamic and motivated forensic service, providing quality scientific investigation and working in partnership with responsive pillars of the Criminal Justice System towards the attainment of equality and justice.
CHEMISTRY DIVISION • Conduct Qualitative aation of Dangerous Drugs under RA 9165 as well as volatile substances under PD 1619. • Conduct examination of explosives and/or explosive ingredients. (PD 1866) • Conduct examination of Firearms and Paraffin casts for the presence of Gunpowder Nitrates. • Conduct Chemico-Toxicological examination of human internal organs, gastric contents, blood water and food sample and other substances. • Conduct examination of fake products in case of unfair trade competition. (fundador, cement, SMB, cigarette, chlorox) • Conduct blood alcohol determination. • Examine urine and other body fluids for the presence of dangerous drugs. • Conduct researches and training related to the cases being examined. • Give lectures on Forensic Chemistry and Toxicology to various schools, universities, police training centers and other investigative units. • Testify and give expert opinion in court. • Respond to queries of all investigative units and render expert opinion regarding matters related to the application of chemical principles for the purpose of assisting investigators in developing investigative leads. • Conduct Field laboratory work and clandestine laboratory investigationnd Quantitative Examin.
PNP Forensic Explosives Laboratory Capabilities: The PNP Forensic Explosives Laboratory can determine the presence of different ions found in post blast debris and suspected explosive materials as well as other ions of potential forensic significance. The PNP Forensic Explosives Laboratory was created thru Philippines-Australia Counter Terrorism Capacity Building Project with the active support of the Australian Federal Police. The support includes laboratory set-up, equipment, supplies and training packages. Inaugurated on February 01, 2007 with the Australian Ambassador to the Philippines His Excellency Tony Hely as the guest of Honor and Speaker.
MEDICO LEGAL DIVISION FUNCTIONS • THE MISSION, CONDUCT EXAMINATIONS ON PERSONS INVOLVED IN PHYSICAL INJURY CASES AND SEXUAL OFFENSES. • CONDUCT AUTOPSIES, EXHUMATIONS, SKELETAL AND ODONTOLOGICAL EXAMINATIONS TO DETERMINE THE CAUSE OF DEATH AND IDENTITY OF PERSONS. • CONDUCT HISTOPATHOLOGICAL AND SEROLOGICAL EXAMINATIONS TO DETERMINE EXACT CAUSE OF DEATH AS WELL AS THE PRESENCE AND TYPE OF HUMAN BLOOD. • CONDUCT DNA ANALYSIS FOR PERSON IDENTIFICATION. • CONDUCT LECTURES TO DIFFERENT POLICE/ MILITARY INSTITUTIONS, GOVERNMENT AGENCIES AND PRIVATE / PUBLIC SCHOOLS. • ORIENT AND TRAIN NEW PERSONNEL AND OJT ON FUNCTIONS AND CAPABILITIES ON THE DIVISION.
DNA BRANCH, MEDICO LEGAL DIVISION FUNCTION AND CAPABILITIES 1. PROVIDES FORENSIC DNA FINGERPRINTING/ANALYSIS TO MATCH THE SUSPECT OF THE CRIME IN CASES OF: A. Alleged raped and other sexual crimes wherein biological sample are recovered B. Alleged murder/ homicide to established identity of perpetrator C. Found dead bodies where standard manner of identification could not establish identity 2. Identifies Victims of Mass Disasters such as in: A. Plane Crashes B. Ship wreckage C. Fire Disasters 3. Establishes paternity/Maternity in child custody conflict and inheritance lawsuits to link consanguinity
PHYSICAL IDENTIFICATION DIVISION Capabilities/ Functions • Conducts analysis and comparison of specimen to determine its nature, composition, quality or source such as hair, fibers, debris, metals, paints, woods, restoration of serial numbers of motor vehicles and firearms, ultraviolet examination in entrapment and buy-bust operations, bullet trajectory in shooting incidents and casting and molding of different types of impressions and tool marks examination. • Assists investigators in the proper collection, handling and preservations of physical evidence. • Conduct researches before their adaptation, give lectures, technical opinion and testimony in both civil and criminal courts.
FIREARMS IDENTIFICATION DIVISION CAPABILITIES • Conducts examination of evidence firearms, fired bullets/cartridge cases, shotgun shells, wads, pellets and related specimens recovered from the crime. • Conducts test firing of evidence firearms of different caliber; • Conducts scene of crime operations and field laboratory works; • Determines the classification of firearms as to power, pursuant to RA 8294; • Conducts lectures, briefings and seminars on firearm identification; • Appears in Court as Expert Witness; and • Performs such other functions as may be directed by the Director, Crime Laboratory.
FINGERPRINT IDENTIFICATION DIVISION CAPABILITIES: • Responsible to the Dir, CL for the examination of all fingerprint evidence of criminal nature. • Supervise the technical training of the division personnel with regards to dactylosycopy so as to improve their knowledge and techniques of examination and analysis. • Provides lectures on the science of Dactyloscopy to PNP School and other units of the AFP. • Provides fingerprint expert witnesses in civil and military courts for the purpose of interpretation of dactyloscopic reports on the scientific examination performed. • Develops, lifts and preserves latent print gathered at the crime scenes subsequently takes fingerprint of suspects and criminal. • Examines, compares and determines the identity or non-identity of all questioned finger, palm and footprints. • Assists in establishing identities of deceased persons whose cadavers and beyond recognition. • Classifies, verifies and files all Fingerprint cards based on Henry System with FBI Modification and Extension. • Maintain index (3x5) card of cross-reference of persons by name whose fingerprint cards are on the Master File.
AFIS BRANCH, FPID FUNCTIONS / CAPABILITIESFINGERPRINT DATA BASE CAPABLE OF ELECTRONICALLY CAPTURING LATENT FINGERPRINT IMAGES AND TEXTUAL INFORMATION
AFIS OPERATION ROOM COLLECTED FINGERPRINT ARE ENCODED TO THE TERMINAL COMPUTER MACHINE AND STORED TO THE MAIN COMPUTER DATA BASE OF AFIS
QUESTIONED DOCUMENT EXAMINATION DIVISION Functions/Capabilities • Examination of Questioned Signatures • Handwriting Examination • Examination of Document suspected to have been Altered/Erased. • Decipherment of Secret Writings • Examination of Sequence of Entry • Paper and Ink Comparison • Typewriting Identification • Examination of Counterfeit Bills • Conduct lectures to PNP, AFP and other government agencies. • Conduct Field Laboratory Works • Attend court Duties.
POLYGRAPH DIVISION FUNCTIONS/CAPABILITIES • Criminal Investigation • Domestic Issues • Employees Theft/Fraud • Unfair Dismissal • Pilferage • Insurance investigation • False and Malicious Allegations • Sexual Harassment • Pre-employment/periodic screening
PHOTOGRAPHY DIVISION FUNCTIONS/CAPABILITIES • Photograph suspects and crime victims for personal identification; • Photograph evidence submitted to this laboratory before examination; • Conduct crime scene photography; • Conduct comparative examination and analysis of questioned photograph; • Conducts lectures to different police/militarytraining institutions, gov’t agencies and public/private schools upon request; • Processes black & white film and print to reduce and enlarge photographs; • Reproduces photographs and other printed matters; • Sketches facial features of suspects based on actual description by the witnesses or victims for identification; • Attend court duties; and • Maintains Crime Laboratory “Rogue’s Gallery”
WRITTEN REQUEST • RELEASING • Releasing of Lab result (duly signed by the Examiner-on-Case, Chief of Technical Div and FLOWCHART OF REQUEST FOR FORENSIC LABORATORY EXAMINATION RECEIVING Recording Referral: To concerned Investigation Personal Request Court Order CRIME LAB RECEIVING/ RELEASING CENTER R E L E A S E O F L A B R E P O R T MEDICO LEGAL DIVISION PHYSICAL IDENTIFICATION DIVISION QUESTIONED DOCUMENT DIVISION FINGERPRINT IDENTIFICATION DIVISION CHEMISTRY DIVISION FIREARMS IDENTIFICATION DIV POLYGRAPH DIVISION FORENSIC PHOTO DIVISION L A B R E P O R T • Assessment of specimen • Recording • Issuance of Land Bank OP • Clientele pay the cost of examination at any Land Bank office • Assignment of case number • Labeling of specimen • Conduct of examination • Preparation of lab report CDS NOTE: Please refer to the duration of examination
START 1 - Request -Directive fromHigher Headquarters Receiving Logbook Receiving Officer Receive and Evaluate Request ADO -Chief, SOCO -SOCO -Duty Detail ADO 2 Mobilize and Dispatch SOCO SOCO Team 3 SOCO Team After SOCO Report Secure, collect, preserve and document evidence 4 After SOCO Report 7 6 Dir, Crime Lab ADO Notation Review and endorse report 5 SOCO Team Monitor and Supervise/consolidate and submit report START 8 ADO File and maintain records PRESENT SOCO FLOW CHART