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Creating Defensible Selection Procedures. Bryan Baldwin State of Washington Department of Personnel May 3, 2006. IPMA-HR Western Region Annual Training Conference. Defensible Selection. Overview/Objectives. By the end of today, you will know: What hiring practices can be challenged.
State of Washington
Department of Personnel
May 3, 2006
IPMA-HR Western Region Annual Training Conference
“Many lawyers think of test validation studies as just a bunch of paperwork that benefits no one but the psychologists…The cost of test validation is normally insignificant compared to the benefits received, and these benefits continue for each year that the test is used—and beyond, to the extent that employees selected by the test remain on the job.”
- Seberhagen (1990)
Procedural justice – the fairness of the process used to select applicants/new hires (not the result)
“The closer the content and the context of the selection procedure are to work samples or work behaviors, the stronger is the basis for showing content validity. As the content of the selection procedure less resembles a work behavior…the less likely the selection procedure is to be content valid, and the greater the need for other evidence of validity.”
– Uniform Guidelines, 14(C)(4)
Charges in 2005 (thousands)
2005 EEOC Charges Filed by Type
Title VII, ADA, and ADEA
But validation is so expensive!
Average cost of content validation:
Median settlement in discrimination case, ’96-’02:
Median 2003 compensatory award in discrimination case:
Sources: Seberhagen (1990); Jury Verdict Research
How to Protect Yourself
“People will continue to measure the wrong things as long as they fail to define what they want to measure.” - Guion (1998)
KSA-Selection Method Matrix
Supervisors’ Opinion Validity
Sources: Schmidt & Hunter (1998); Roth et al. (2005); Aamodt (1998); U.S. MSPB (2005)
Looking in the mirror
Study of 959 HR professionals
1. The most valid employment interviews are designed around each candidate’s unique background.
2. Although people use many different terms to describe personalities, there are really only four…as captured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI).
3. Being very intelligent is actually a disadvantage for performing well on a low-skilled job.
4. “Integrity tests” don’t work well in practice because so many people lie on them.
5. Companies that screen job applicants for values have higher performance than those that screen for intelligence.
Source: Rynes et al. (2002)
Documenting the Selection Process
11. “Sell” your exam to applicants
13. Look at your SMEs
14. Do background and reference checks
Where do we set the pass point?
“[cutoff scores]…should normally be set as to be reasonable and consistent with normal expectations of acceptable proficiency within the work force.”
- Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures (1978)
“[cutoff scores should be] reasonable and consistent with normal expectations of performance.”
- Craig v. County of Los Angeles (1980, 9rd Cir.)
“…under [the Civil Rights Act] a discriminatory cutoff score on an entry level employment examination must be shown to measure the minimum qualifications necessary for successful performance on the job.”
- Lanning v. SEPTA (1999, 3rd Cir.)