Vacuum pumps
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Vacuum Pumps. Basics. vac·u·um noun 1. a space entirely devoid of matter.

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  • vac·u·um

    • noun 1. a space entirely devoid of matter.

    • 2. an enclosed space from which matter, especially air, has been partially removed so that the matter or gas remaining in the space exerts less pressure than the atmosphere ( opposed to plenum). (

  • Exhaust pressure= atm generally

  • Base pressure = pressure pump gets down to

  • Compression ratio = exhaust/base= big number

  • Boyles Law P1V1=P2V2

History of vacuum pumps
History of vacuum pumps

  • Suction pumps go way back (Romans, Byzantine empire, etc)

  • Major improvements on the idea of vacuum made by Galileo, Evangeilist Torricelli, and Blaise Pascal

  • Otto von Guericke made first pump and famous for Magdeburg hemispheres experiment

Types of vacuum pumps
Types of Vacuum pumps

  • Positive displacement pumps

    • Expand a cavity, seal, exhaust, repeat

  • Momentum transfer pumps (molecular pumps)

    • High speed liquids or blades to knock gasses around

  • Entrapment

    • Create solids or adsorbed gases (cryopumps)

Roughing pumps
Roughing pumps

  • Pumps from atm pressure down to rough vacuum (0.1 Pa, 1X10-3torr)

  • Necessary because turbo pumps have trouble starting from atmospheric pressure

  • Usually Rotary Vane pumps

  • Can have oil or not

Rotary vane pumps
Rotary vane pumps

Oil Sealed Rotary Pumps Understanding Gas

Rotary vane pumps1
Rotary vane pumps

Condensation of vapor in the gas mixture is a problem with these pumps. Solution Ballasting

Works by increasing the gas/vapor ratio (air is mostly gas)

As you might imagine this interferes with the final vacuum


  • One stage or two stage

  • Belt Drive or direct drive

Slower 400-600 RPM

Bigger, Cheaper

Faster 1500 to 1725 RPM

Smaller, lighter

Turbo molecular pumps
Turbo (molecular) pumps

  • Gas molecules interact with spinning blades and are preferentially forced downward

  • High vacuum (10-6 Pa) requires rotation of 20,000 to 90,000 revolutions per minute

  • Generally work between 10-3 and 10-7 Torr

  • Ineffective before gas is in “molecular flow”

Turbo molecular pumps1
Turbo (molecular) pumps

  • Options:

    • Bearings: Ceramic (oil lubricated) Magnetic (supported w/out physical contact), also hybrid

    • Rotor options (Blade configuration)

    • Cooling (air or water)

Pump care
Pump Care

  • Rough pumps shouldn’t need a lot of maintenance

    • If they do repair kits are available:

    • Minor kit includes all necessary seals (shaft seals, valves, o-rings, etc)

    • Major kit includes Minor Kit components plus vanes, springs, plugs, etc.

    • Seem to be available for most major brands and types

  • Turbopumps should need even less maintenance, bearings can wear out but must be replaced by manufacturer for balancing.

Pump specs
Pump specs

Spec sheet for an

Edwards A65209903

RV rotary vane pump


Vacuum pumps

Rotary Vane:

Pump speed lower at low vacuum

Turbo pumps: opposite

Pump Speed


Useful fitting terminology
Useful fitting terminology

  • Flanges

    • Standard quick Release (QF, KF, NW, or DN)

      • Named based on internal diameter DN16KF is 16mm (16-50mm)

    • Large Quick releases (LF, LFB, MF or ISO)

      • Clamps or bolts (63-500mm)

    • Conflat (CF) used in ultra high vacuum settings, usually metal to metal seals

      • Sizing odd: Europe inner diamter in mm, NA outer diameter in inches

Vacuum pumps

Sizes we will likely find.

Pumps on the delta s
Pumps on the Delta S

  • Pumping system for Analyzer

    • Turbo molecular pump TPH 050

    • Vacuum pump E2 M1, 52

  • Differential Pumping system

    • Turbo molecular pump TPH 050

    • Turbo molecular pump TPH 240

    • Vorvakuumpumpe E2 M5, 50160 Hz

Vacuum pumps

Turbo molecular pump TPH 050

Turbo molecular pump TPH 240