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Presentation By: Daniel Zirkel, Leila Beheshti and Nicole Scagliola. Lab Performed By: Chris Seiter, Lindsay Cafiero, & Jerry Kim. The Human Genographic Project. The Human Genographic Project. What?. Why?. How?.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Presentation By: Daniel Zirkel, Leila Beheshti and Nicole Scagliola

Lab Performed By:

Chris Seiter,

Lindsay Cafiero, &

Jerry Kim

The Human Genographic Project

about the human genographic project
About The Human Genographic Project

WHAT?

What?

Why?

How?

By: Leila Beheshti

about the human genographic project1
About The Human Genographic Project
  • The Genographic Project is a research partnership led by Dr. Spencer Wells, a National Geographic Explorer. International scientists, IBM researchers and Dr. Wells are using patterns of DNA around the world to understand genetic roots.
about the human genographic project2
About The Human Genographic Project
  • Scientists guess that all humans are descended from African ancestors who then migrated to other parts of the world. They use advanced computer analysis to track where the ancestors migrated.
what does it do
What Does It Do?
  • The program collects data from indigenous tribes, collects data from people worldwide through their participation kits, and to use the money made from the kits to further investigate the genetics.
applications
Applications?
  • Using the DNA collected, the scientists can map out where everybody migrated from, migrated to, how they got there and how they got to live how they are today. This is because the indigenous tribes have isolated DNA so people with distinct markers in their DNA can be tracked. Finding these results is perhaps the best way to learn about our history.
the cold hard facts
The COLD HARD Facts!
  • Participants remain anonymous and the program is non-medical. It is also non profit, so all proceeds will go to further research and to the Legacy Fund. This will help the conservation of the indigenous tribes because they are dwindling away because of the shrinking world and loss of culture.
slide10

DNA

  • DNA is an acronym for Deoxyribonucleic Acid
  • A single strand of DNA is made of approximately 3 billion rungs
  • 3 main parts:
      • nitrogenous bases
      • deoxyribose residue
      • phosphoric acid residue
      • Nitrogenous Bases:
      • Adenine
      • Guanine
      • Cytosine
      • Thymine
slide12

Biology 101

  • Adenine always pairs w/ Thymine
  • Cytosine always pairs w/ Guanine
  • Rungs are always connected to Phosphoric Acid
  • The Deoxyribose Residue connects these Phosphoric Acid links
applications1
Applications?
  • DNA is the code for life and is located in the nucleus of every cell of an organism.
  • The arrangement of the nitrogenous bases determines every characteristic of that organism.
  • DNA molecules are shaped like a twisting ladder or double-helix, and some segments of the nitrogenous bases constitute individual genes.
  • Genes determine which proteins individual cells will produce and thus what function each particular cell will perform.
how the answer
How?: The Answer
  • For most of our genome we receive half of our genes from our father and half from our mother. Each half represents a shuffled combination of DNA passed down to us from our ancestors. This recombination process makes it difficult to study lines of descent and creates a genetic mix of everyone who has come before. What’s fortunate however, is that there are parts of the genome passed down unchanged from parent to child. In these segments the genetic code is varied only through occasional mutations - random spelling mistakes in the long sequence of letters that make up our DNA. When these mutations are passed down through the generations they become markers of descent.
how the answer1
How?: The Answer
  • For most of our genome we receive half of our genes from our father and half from our mother. Each half represents a shuffled combination of DNA passed down to us from our ancestors. This recombination process makes it difficult to study lines of descent and creates a genetic mix of everyone who has come before. What’s fortunate however, is that there are parts of the genome passed down unchanged from parent to child. In these segments the genetic code is varied only through occasional mutations - random spelling mistakes in the long sequence of letters that make up our DNA. When these mutations are passed down through the generations they become markers of descent.
mutations
Mutations
  • https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/genographic/lan/en/population.html
migratory patterns
Migratory Patterns
  • By tracing your line of ancestral descent through these mutations the Human Genographic Project can pinpoint exactly where your family came from and how it got to where it is now and/or was at a certain point in time.
slide18
WHY?

By: Nicole Scagliola

why do they do it
Why Do They Do It?
  • The purpose of this project is to collect 100,000’s of DNA samples from people all over the world belonging to different cultures in order to figure out the full story of human history.
  • They aim to discover how exactly did we migrate and populate the world.
  • Scientists plan to map out the patterns of migrations to better understand the connections and differences that make up humankind.
how does it help us
How Does It Help Us?
  • Other questions such as: What impact has culture had on human genetic variation?
  • How have cultural practices affected our patterns of genetic diversity?
  • Or if we share a recent common ancestry, why do we look different from each other?
  • By answering these questions, the end result will basically put together the puzzle of the past.
cont d
(cont’d)
  • The answers to these questions are found clearly written on our genes but in the 21st Century where populations are mixing at a fast rate, the number of distinct languages and cultures are dwindling.
  • By using genetic markers or unchanged segments of DNA passed on from generation to generation found on these samples, scientists are able to preserve these distinctions creating a legacy of human history.
cont d1
(cont’d)
  • Donators also benefit from this experiment as well.
  • Along with supporting this project people will also get to discover more about where they truly originated from.
  • Participants have the opportunity to learn about their ancestors and their journeys.
  • They can also reveal facts about their unknown nationalities or relatives
slide23

Presentation By: Daniel Zirkel, Leila Beheshti and Nicole Scagliola

Thanks For Watching…

THE END

The Human Genographic Project