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The 1920s and 1930s. The Roaring Twenties. During World War I, many Americans moved to cities. They worked in factories or other businesses . Technology changed American lives. Many people bought cars, especially those built on Henry Ford’s assembly lines .
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The Roaring Twenties • During World War I, many Americans moved to cities. They worked in factories or other businesses. • Technology changed American lives. • Many people bought cars, especially those built on Henry Ford’s assembly lines. • Electricity made people’s lives easier. It made doing household chores easier and gave people more free time.
A Changing Society • During the “Roaring Twenties,” women did things they did not do before. They worked outside their homes. They also went to college and played sports. • Jazz began among African Americans in the South. Louis Armstrong, a singer and trumpeter, helped to make jazz popular in the 1920s.
A Changing Society • Harlem, a neighborhood in New York City, was famous for jazz, art, and literature. Poet Langston Hughes wrote about African Americans during this period also known as the Harlem Renaissance. • American’s first radio broadcast was in 1920. Soon many families owned radios. Families sat together and listened to news reports, music, sports, and comedy shows. In 1927, people watched their first movie with sound. One of the most popular programs was sports. Audiences cheered as Babe Ruth became the first baseball player to hit 60 home runs in a season.
A Changing Society • In the 1920s, aviators began to fly long distances. • In 1927, Charles Lindbergh flew the first solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean. Amelia Earhart and Bessie Coleman were famous aviators who inspired women.
The Great Depression • During the 1920s, many Americans did not think the economic boom would end. They borrowed money to buy goods and to invest in the stock market. • In October 1929, the stock market crashed. The value of stocks dropped. Many people and businesses lost money. • The economy got worse. Stores could not sell their goods, so factories did not need as many workers. Businesses closed, and many people lost their jobs. Unemployment was high. This time of hardship is called the Great Depression. It lasted through the 1930s. • Many people, especially farmers, were in debt. Many banks closed and customers lost their savings. Banks could not make loans to help businesses.
Hard Times for Americans • In 1932, about 25 percent of the working population did not have jobs. • People without jobs lost their homes because they could not pay their debts. Many became homeless. • People were poor and hungry. They stood in bread lines at soup kitchens to get free meals. Charities gave food to needy people.
The Great Depression was hard on farmers especially. Then in the early 1930s, there was a bad drought on the Great Plains. Almost no rain fell, and the soil turned to dust. People called this area the Dust Bowl. Many farmers left to find work. Hard Times for Americans
Roosevelt and the New Deal • Herbert Hoover was President when the Great Depression began. Hoover believed the economy could get better by itself. The economy didn’t. More people lost their homes and jobs. • Americans wanted the government to help. Congress passed laws that loaned money to banks and railroads, but these laws did not improve the whole economy. • In 1933, Franklin D. Roosevelt became President. Roosevelt thought the federal government should help end the Depression. He promised to give the people a “new deal” by creating programs to help them.
The New Deal • President Roosevelt soon started government programs to give food and shelter to the needy. These programs were known as the New Deal.The Civilian Conservation Corps, or CCC, gave people jobs that conserved, or protected, the natural environment. CCC workers planted trees and cleared hiking trails. • The Tennessee Valley Authority, or TVA, gave people jobs building dams on the Tennessee River. These dams created hydroelectricity for rural areas. The dams also prevented floods. • The Work Progress Administration, or WPA, gave people jobs building streets, parks, libraries, and schools.
The New Deal • Many New Deal programs continue today. The Social Security Act provides money to people who are over 65 years old or have disabilities. • The New Deal made regulations to protect people’s savings accounts in banks. Another regulation protects workers by setting a minimum wage. • By 1939, many Americans still did not have jobs, but the economy was improving. Since Roosevelt’s presidency, the federal government has had a bigger part of Americans’ lives.