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Shoulda … Woulda … Coulda The Functional Behavior Assessment/Behavior Intervention Plan Process Supporting Staff Behavior Supporting Decision Making OUTCOMES Systems Data Practices Supporting Student Behavior Objectives of this session Shoulda …

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Shoulda … Woulda … Coulda

The Functional Behavior Assessment/Behavior Intervention Plan Process


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Supporting

Staff Behavior

Supporting

Decision Making

OUTCOMES

Systems

Data

Practices

Supporting Student Behavior


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Objectives of this session

  • Shoulda …

    • Systems to support consistent application of the law by staff

  • Woulda …

    • Practices including FBA to support students with challenging behavior

  • Coulda …

    • Data to make decisions and monitor progress


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Designing Comprehensive Systems

CONTINUUM OF Positive Behavior Intervention & Support (PBIS)

Adapted from the Center for Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (2002)


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Designing Comprehensive Systems

CONTINUUM OF Positive Behavior Intervention & Support (PBIS)

Adapted from the Center for Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (2002)


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School Improvement

Whole School

Academic

Behavior

Effective

School

Organization

Classroom

Effective

Instructional

Practices

Culturally

Responsive

Instruction

Intensive, Individual Interventions

  • Tutoring

  • Academic Remediation Plans

  • Specially Designed Instruction

Intensive, Individual Interventions

  • Functional Behavior Assessment & Behavior Intervention Planning

Effective

Instructional

Practices

Struggling Students

Culturally

Responsive

Practices

Individuals

Progress

Monitoring

Targeted Group Interventions

  • Small group instruction

  • Focused academic help

    sessions

Targeted Group Interventions

  • Social Skills instruction

  • Reinforcement of specific skills

  • Group Behavioral Strategies

  • Classroom Coaching

Consider-

ation for

Eligibility

EC

Behavioral

Group Strategies

Universal

Design/

Differentiated

Instruction

Related

Services

Positive School

Climate

Specially

Designed

Instruction

FBA/BIP

Mental Health

Assistance

Behavior

Interventions

Universal Interventions

  • Effective instructional

    practices

  • Recognition of academic

    achievement

  • Culturally responsive practices

  • Data-based decision-making

  • Parent & Community Partnerships

Universal Interventions

  • School-wide rules and

    procedures

  • Systematic reinforcement

  • Social Skills Instruction

  • Culturally responsive practices

  • Data-based decision-making

  • Parent & Community Partnerships

Effective Staff

Development

Mental

Health Services

Positive

Classroom

Management

Focused

Research-based

Academic Instruction

Data Based

Decision

Making

Ongoing

Screening and

Assessment

Classroom Coaching

and Consultation

Parent and

Community

Partnerships


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Tier IV

IEP

Consideration

Tier III

Consultation with

the Problem Solving

Action Team

Tier II

Consultation

With Other

Resources

Intensive

Intervention

5%

Tier I

Consultation

Between

Teachers-Parents

Strategic

Interventions

15%

Core

Curriculum

80%

How do PBIS & RtI match up?


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Shoulda …

Known IDEA 2004

NC Policies Governing Services for Children with Disabilities

Shoulda had a SYSTEM


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Authority of School Personnel

  • School personnel may remove a student with a disability from his/her current placement for up to 10cumulative school days in one academic year for any violation of school code of conduct.

  • These removals may be to an appropriate interim alternative educational setting, another setting, or suspension (to the extent those alternatives are applied to children without disabilities).

  • Services are not required during the first ten cumulative days of removal unless services are provided to students without disabilities.

    NC 1504-2.1 (b)(1)


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Authority of School Personnel

  • School personnel may also impose additional removals of the child for not more than 10 consecutive school daysin the same school year for separate incidents of misconduct, as long as those removals do not constitute a change of placement (location of and access to services).

    NC1504-2.1 (b)(1)


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“Change of Placement”

  • Changing a student with a disability’s educationalplacement (continuum of services) may only be made by an IEP team.

  • Removal of a child with a disability from the child’s current educational placement (location of and access to services) by school personnel may lead to a disciplinarychange of placement.


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When does a disciplinary change in placement occur?

Scenario 1:

A disciplinary change in placement occurs when a student is removed for more than 10 consecutive school days:

NC 1504-2.7 (a)(1)


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When does a disciplinary change in placement occur?

Scenario 2:

A disciplinary change in placement occurs if the child has been subjected to a series of removals that constitute a pattern –

  • Because the series of removals total more than 10 school days in a school year;

  • Because the child’s behavior is substantially similar to the child’s behavior in previous incidents that resulted in the series of removals; AND

  • Because of such additional factors as the length of each

    removal, the total amount of time the child has been removed and the proximity of the removals to one another.

    NC 1504-2.7 (a)(2)


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When does a disciplinary change in placement occur?

Important Information:

  • The LEA determines on a case by case basis whether a pattern of removals constitutes a change in placement

  • This determination is subject to review through due process and judicial proceedings.

    NC 1504-2.7 (b)(1)(2)


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When imposing discipline for a violation of the student code of conduct after the “FAPE Free Zone” days (10 cumulative), school personnel must always be mindful of the disciplinary history of the student and ask, “Will this removal constitute a change in placement?”


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“Will this removal constitute a change in placement?” of conduct after the “FAPE Free Zone” days (10 cumulative), school personnel must always be mindful of the disciplinary history of the student and ask,

If the answer is “NO”:

  • School personnel can proceed with the removal.

  • Services must be provided.

  • School personnel, in consultation with at least one of the child’s teachers, determine what services will be provided.

  • A FBA (Functional Behavior Assessment) and BIP (Behavioral Intervention Plan) must be either developed to address the behavior or if a BIP has already been developed, it must be reviewed and modified, as necessary.

    NC 1504-2.1(b)(2)(d)(1)


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“Will this removal constitute a change in placement?” of conduct after the “FAPE Free Zone” days (10 cumulative), school personnel must always be mindful of the disciplinary history of the student and ask,

If the answer is “YES”:

  • A manifestation meeting must occur within 10 school days.

  • On the day school personnel decide to remove the student, they must issue the LEA disciplinary removal form, Prior Written Notice (DEC 5a), and the Handbook on Parents’ Rights.

  • Services must be provided immediately upon removal.

  • The student’s IEP team must determine these services. NC 1504-2.1(b)(2)(d)(1)

  • A FBA (Functional Behavior Assessment) and BIP (Behavioral Intervention Plan) must be developed to address the behavior or if one has already been developed, it must be reviewed and modified, as necessary.

    NC 1504-2.1(b)(2)(d)(1)


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“Will this removal constitute a change in placement?” of conduct after the “FAPE Free Zone” days (10 cumulative), school personnel must always be mindful of the disciplinary history of the student and ask,

If the answer is “YES”, can the student be removed pending the manifestation determination meeting?

  • The law is silent in this circumstance.

  • However, it is clear that services during the removal must be determined by the IEP team and be designed so as to enable the child to continue to participate in the general education curriculum, although in another setting, and to progress toward meeting the annual goals set out in the child’s IEP and receive a FBA and BIP and modifications that are designed to address the behavior violation so that it does not recur. If a BIP already has been developed, it must be reviewed and modified, as necessary, to address the behavior.NC 1504-2.1(b)(2)(d)(1)(5)


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Services-No Change in Placement of conduct after the “FAPE Free Zone” days (10 cumulative), school personnel must always be mindful of the disciplinary history of the student and ask,

For subsequent suspensions of not more than 10 school days that are not a change of placement, school personnel in consultation with at least one of the child’s teachers determine what services are needed so as toenable the child to continue to participate in the general education curriculum, although in another setting, and progress toward meeting the goals set out in the child’s IEP, and receive a FBA, and BIP and modifications that are designed to address the behavior violation so that it does not recur. If a BIP already has been developed, it must be reviewed and modified, as necessary, to address the behavior.

NC 1504-2(d)(1)


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Services-Change in Placement of conduct after the “FAPE Free Zone” days (10 cumulative), school personnel must always be mindful of the disciplinary history of the student and ask,

If it is determined that a removal or series of removals constitutes a change of placement, the IEP team determines appropriate services.


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If school personnel determine the removal will constitute a change in placement they must send home Prior Written Notice (DEC 5a) and a Handbook on Parents’ Rights with the LEA disciplinary action form. This notifies the parent a manifestation meeting will occur.


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REVIEW: change in placement they must send home Prior Written Notice (DEC 5a) and a Removals Resulting in a Change in Placement

  • Parents must be notified and given full explanation of procedural safeguards (LEA Disciplinary Action Form, DEC 5a & Handbook on ParentsRights).

  • The DEC 5a serves as notice to attend the meeting.

  • The manifestation team (like that of the IEP team) must convene within 10 school days to determine if the behavior was a manifestation of the child’s disability.

  • If the student begins the removal (suspension) prior to the manifestation determination, services must be determined by the IEP team.


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Woulda … change in placement they must send home Prior Written Notice (DEC 5a) and a

Used Best Practice

“Standards of good professional practice dictate a problem solving approach to managing behaviors in the school” (Crone &Horner, 2003)

Woulda utilized PRACTICES!


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Functional Behavior Assessments change in placement they must send home Prior Written Notice (DEC 5a) and a


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Functional Behavioral change in placement they must send home Prior Written Notice (DEC 5a) and a Assessment

“A process for gathering information used to maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of behavioral support” (O’Neill et al., 1997)

  • Operational definition of behavior

  • Identification of events that are functionally related to behavior

  • Identification of consequences that maintain behavior

  • Hypothesis about function of behavior

  • Direct observation to confirm/support hypothesis


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Four Basic Recommendations change in placement they must send home Prior Written Notice (DEC 5a) and a

  • Never stop doing what is already working

  • Always look for the smallest change that will produce the largest effect

    • Avoid defining a large number of goals

    • Do a small number of things well

  • Do not add something new without also defining what you will stop doing to make the addition possible

  • Collect and use data for decision making


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Three Important Themes change in placement they must send home Prior Written Notice (DEC 5a) and a

  • Create systems, not just programs, to support all students

  • Earlier rather than later

  • Evidence, not opinion


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Steps for Conducting a FBA and change in placement they must send home Prior Written Notice (DEC 5a) and a Developing a BIP

Identify the strengths of the student.

2. Identify the problem behavior.

3. Gather Information.

4. Generate a hypothesis statement.

5. Build a “Competing Behavior Pathway” to identify possible elements of a Behavior Intervention Plan.

6. Design & Evaluate a Behavioral Intervention Plan.

7. Plan for effective implementation of the Behavior Intervention Plan.

8. Monitor regularly and modify based on observed progress.

Adapted from Crone, D.A. and Horner,R.H., 2003


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Setting change in placement they must send home Prior Written Notice (DEC 5a) and a

Events

Triggering

Antecedents

Problem

Behavior

Maintaining

Consequences

Diagram Behavior(FBA Process)


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Setting change in placement they must send home Prior Written Notice (DEC 5a) and a

Events

No Teacher contact for 5 minutes

Triggering

Antecedents

Small group or independent work

Problem

Behavior

Out-of-seat

Off-task

Maintaining

Consequences

Teacher

Attention

Designing Functional Interventions: Rasheed

  • When Rasheed is left unattended by the teacher for longer than 5 minutes (setting event), and he is given independent or small group work (antecedent) he leaves his seat/area (behavior) to obtain adult attention (function).


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Desired change in placement they must send home Prior Written Notice (DEC 5a) and a

Alternative

Maintaining

Consequences

Setting

Events

Triggering

Antecedents

Problem

Behavior

Maintaining

Consequences

Acceptable

Alternative

Define Alternative or Competing Behavior


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Setting change in placement they must send home Prior Written Notice (DEC 5a) and a

Events

No Teacher contact for 5 minutes

Triggering

Antecedents

Small group or independent work

Problem

Behavior

Out-of-seat

Off-task

Maintaining

Consequences

Teacher

Attention

Desired

Behavior

On-task

Maintaining

Consequences

Work

Completion

& Grades

Acceptable

Alternative

Ask for help/

Recruit

feedback


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DESIGNING FUNCTIONAL INTERVENTIONS change in placement they must send home Prior Written Notice (DEC 5a) and a

Desired

Alternative

Maintaining

Consequences

Setting

Events

Triggering

Antecedents

Problem

Behavior

Maintaining

Consequences

Setting

Event

Manipulations

Antecedent

Manipulations

Behavior

Teaching

Consequence

Manipulations

Acceptable

Alternative


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  • Event change in placement they must send home Prior Written Notice (DEC 5a) and a

  • Manipulations

  • Mentoring

  • Program

  • Schedule

  • independent

  • or small

  • group work

  • after whole

  • group

  • activities in-

  • volving

  • active

  • participation

  • and group

  • response

  • Antecedent

  • Manipulations

  • Check in frequently with

  • Rasheed during

  • work periods.

  • Precorrect Rasheed on appropriate way to ask for teacher help/attention

  • Design lessons to provide more whole group response/ active participation

  • Behavior

  • Teaching

  • Re-teach class rules and routines that address ‘in seat’ and ‘class movement’

  • Teach Rasheed how to request teacher help / attention

  • Teach Rasheed how to tolerate delays in getting attention

  • Consequences

  • Manipulations

  • Ignore out of seat requests for assistance

  • Respond immediately if he asks appropriately for teacher attention

Intervention & Support Strategies



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Assessing Function behavior is?

  • Look for patterns of behavior, even very diverse behaviors can serve the same function

  • Don’t see a pattern? May need more data

  • Utilize functional behavior checklists



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What does Tier 1 look like for PBIS Tiers?

  • Is an FBA completed at this level?


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What does Tier II look like for PBIS? Tiers?

  • Chart behavior to determine function and develop hypothesis

  • Make contact with team that manages Secondary PBIS practices if any of those practices meet a functional need

  • Design a plan that incorporates existing intervention options and behavior remediation


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Tier II Intervention Tiers?

  • Developed by teacher, parent, consultant with some expertise in area of student need

  • Consider Tier I information

  • Define/analyze/problem

  • Develop hypothesis

  • Collect baseline data

  • Create/implement plan (measureable Goal)

  • Evaluate

  • Decide next steps

    • Continue/modify/discontinue plan

    • Move to Tier III


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What does Tier III look like for PBIS? Tiers?

  • More complex team-implemented process

  • Requires team member with behavioral background

  • Includes (peer-referenced) observations, and record review

  • BIP identifies set of replacement behaviors to be taught

  • BIP takes into account antecedent and consequence strategies, as well as contextual fit

  • Evaluation planned several weeks after implementation


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Tier III Intervention Tiers?

  • Team approach

  • Consider Tier I, II information

  • Define/analyze/problem

  • Develop Hypothesis/ Validate performance with data collection

  • Create/implement plan (Goal and measurement strategy)

  • Evaluate (amount of progress/discrepancy)

  • Decide next steps

    • Continue/modify/discontinue plan

    • Move to Tier IV


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What does Tier IV look like for PBIS? Tiers?

  • NOT tied to special ed referral (but could be part)

  • Most intensive – still occurs as a tertiary intervention

  • Functional analysis requires in-depth and lengthy data collection

  • Includes direct observations & systematic manipulation of the environment to confirm hypothesis


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What does Tier IV look like for PBIS? Tiers?

  • Requires behavioral expertise

  • School teams strongly encouraged to include agencies and other community partners involved with the family (Systems of Care, Child & Family Team)

  • BIP structured to intervene at each possible level


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What does Tier IV look like for PBIS? Tiers?

  • BIP plans intensive teaching of replacement behavior, generalization strategies and who will teach

  • BIP defines reinforcement & consequence strategies

  • Evaluation planned to determine success of BIP & any modifications necessary to make it more efficient or effective

  • May require crisis plan to be put in place during data collection and planning


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Tier IV Intervention Tiers?

  • Re-initiate problem-solving process

  • Add/modify intervention

  • Initiate referral to IEP team


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Coulda … Tiers?

Utilized tools to collect data and document progress

Made a difference

Coulda used DATA to make a difference in the success of a student with challenging behavior


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PBIS Tools for Tier II Tiers?

  • Behavior Charting

  • Data Collection:

    • DBRs

    • Checklists

  • System of Secondary Interventions


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Data Collection: Checklists Tiers?

  • Motivation Assessment Scale

  • Project FACILE


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Data Collection: DBRs Tiers?

  • Daily Behavior Report = DBR

  • The DBR involves a brief

    rating of target behavior

    over a specified period of time

  • Example in toolkit

  • Additional examples at http://www.interventioncentral.org/htmdocs/interventions/behavior/behrptcd.php


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Secondary PBIS Practices Tiers? that could support this student

  • Mentoring

    • Adult listener/buddy

  • Check-in/Check-out

    • Daily progress report with behavior coaching

  • Small Group Intensive Social Skills Instruction

    • Specific topics to fill in social skills gaps


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Tools for Tier III Tiers?

  • Social Developmental History (RtI)

  • Peer-Referenced Behavior Observation Forms (RtI)

  • Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers and Staff (FACTS – A & B)


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Tier IV Tools Tiers?

  • Functional Interventions in Versatile Environments Questionnaire (FIVE-Q)

  • Functional Behavior Assessment Behavior Support Plan (F-BSP) Protocol


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Questions? Tiers?Answers? Ideas?


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References and Resources Tiers?

  • www.ncpublicschools.org/positivebehavior/

  • www.pbis.org

  • www.apbs.org

  • Your PBIS regional Coordinator http://www.ncpublicschools.org/positivebehavior/coordinator/


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Presented by: Tiers?

Dana Rusher, [email protected]

Joe Simmons, [email protected]


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