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Today: Quiz 3 Discussion My office hours: Tu 10 -11, Th 1 - 2 in Science 106 C Family Science Night, Wednesday, Oct. 22, 6 - 9pm at Oak Grove Middle School in Concord! “Primary Metabolites”: Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Amino acids and proteins.

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slide1

Today:

  • Quiz 3 Discussion
  • My office hours: Tu 10 -11, Th 1 - 2 in Science 106 C
  • Family Science Night, Wednesday, Oct. 22, 6 - 9pm at Oak Grove Middle School in Concord!
  • “Primary Metabolites”:
  • Carbohydrates
    • Fats and Oils
    • Amino acids and proteins
quiz 3 answers high 22 low 8 average 18 2

Quiz 3 Answers High: 22 Low: 8 Average: 18.2

Write the formula for:

calcium hydroxide (OH-) Ca(OH)2

magnesium nitrate (NO3- ) Mg(NO3)2

calcium carbonate (CO32- ) CaCO3

potassium phosphate (PO43- ) K3PO4

sodium sulfate (SO42- )Na2SO4

slide3

Draw the structures for two (three?) isomers of C5H12/of C4H8

a) Name two signs that a chemical reaction must have occurred (anywhere, in a lab or in a living organism).

b) What is special about chemical reactions in plants? Mention at least two aspects.

a) Which two products are always formed in a complete combustion of hydrocarbons (i.e. in the presence of plenty of oxygen)?

b) Which two products are always formed during a fermentation?

b) Which two products are always formed as a result of photosynthesis?

primary and secondary metabolites
Primary and Secondary Metabolites
  • Primary metabolites: Organic metabolites that are found in all plants (and all animals)
    • Sugars, carbohydrates Provide energy ( have other functions, too...)
      • Functional groups, more on isomers
    • Fats and oils Provide protection and energy
    • Amino acids Building blocks of proteins
  • (More about these when we address “Plants and Foods”.)
  • Secondary metabolites: unique to some plants
    • Plant odors. Pigments. Defensive compounds.
primary metabolites carbohydrates c x h 2 o x glucose sucrose fructose lactose cellulose
Primary Metabolites:Carbohydrates Cx(H2O)xglucose, sucrose, fructose, lactose, cellulose….
  • Carbohydrates (“Sugars”)
    • are composed of C, H, O
    • are organic compounds with lots of O-H functional groups
  • Functional groups are attachments to the carbon skeleton. They have typical chemical reactions.
glucose
Glucose

has other molecular shapes as well…

molecules that can be left handed or right handed
Molecules that can be left-handed or right-handed:

Asymmetric Molecules “Chiral Molecules”Optical Isomers

A

CH

CH

3

3

H

H

B

C

C

C

COOH

OH

OH

HOOC

D

E

a chiral molecule

Lactic acid

mirror image

Enantiomers = Mirror images

slide9

Many Functions of Glucose in Plants!

  • can be broken down during aerobic respiration to provide energy and high–energy compounds, such as ATP, to do further chemical work.
slide10

Functions of Glucose

  •   can be converted into starch for later use(bulbs in Mediterranean climate!)
slide11

Functions of Glucose:

  • Is needed to compose cellulose in plants
slide13

Functions of Glucose

  •     Required for the biosynthesis
    • of other carbohydrates (like starch and cellulose)
  • of fats and oils
    • of amino acids (building blocks of proteins)
  • Involved in the biosynthesis of all organic compounds in plants!
slide14

Functions of Glucose

  • Molecules that are poorly soluble in water can become better soluble
  • if glucose is bonded to them
  • making them “Glycosides”

Examples:

Cardiac Glycosides

in

Milkweed, Digitalis

In conclusion: Glucose has many functions in plants!

summary of functions of carbohydrates in plants glucose and others
Summary of functions of carbohydrates in plants (glucose and others)
  • Required for biosynthesis of all other organic plant molecules
  • Storage of energy (starch, other sugars)
  • Provide structure (cellulose)
  • Make other molecules water-soluble (glycosides)
  • Sweeten ripe fruit
  • Freeze-protection
  • Sticky gums as defense
  • Attract pollinators with sweet nectar
practice can you find any chiral carbons in the molecules below mark them with
Practice:Can you find any chiral carbons in the molecules below? Mark them with *

CH4

OH

H

C -

C -

COOH

3

H

Lactic acid

next class

Next class:

More on “Primary Metabolites”:

“Lipids. Fats and Oils”