SPORT PSYCHOLOGY Chapter 4. Motivation. Lavallee et al. (2004) Sport Psychology: Contemporary Themes (Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke). Introduction, History and Development. There has been a longstanding concern with motivation in both psychology and sport
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Weiner’s Attribution Theory (1985, 1986)
In One’s Control
Out of One’s Control
Two key questions
1. Motivators of Participation
Motivators can often change over time
2. Demotivators of Participation
Can be temporary or permanent
Can be at a particular level or total rejection
Self-determination Theory or Cognitive Evaluation Theory
(Deci,1971; Fredrick & Ryan, 1995)
Continuum of Self-determination
Ext LoC Int LoC
Amotivation Extrinsic Mot Intrinsic Mot
(Deci & Ryan, 1985)
Perceived Competence Theory(Harter, 1978)
Theories and Models 2
Achievement Goal Orientation (GO) Theory
NB Both orientations find competition meaningful… it is the meaning attached to competition that distinguishes them
Differences in Achievement GO(Nicholls, 1978; Roberts & Treasure, 1995; White & Duda), 1994)
Significant Others and Achievement GO
(White et al., 98)
Is a Task GO favourable?(Fox et al., 1994; Hardy et al., 1996)
Self-Efficacy & Social Cognitive Theory
Social Exchange Theory - Thibaut & Kelley (1959)
Key Participation Constructs
Key Participation Constructs
Evaluation of Rewards
sig. life events
injury, other interests
lack of facilities, time
age, gender, fitness
Original Process Model(Kremer and Busby, 1998)
Equity of Reward
R3 & R4
Intention to Participate
Decision to Participate
(Lowry & Kremer, 2002)
From an early age it was obvious that Paul was likely to excel in sport. At primary school he was on an automatic choice on every team, he played soccer for a local youth side, and ran in the county cross country championships which he won easily. His sport came easily to him and he enjoyed trying out new activities and meeting friends. Both his parents were very supportive. His mother had been a county hockey player and his father had played rugby and was president of the local rugby club. At his secondary school Paul was encouraged to play soccer, and scouts from several professional clubs came to watch him play. One offered him the opportunity of an apprenticeship but his parents were keen for him to continue his education and go on to university if possible. The school principal was an ardent soccer fan and coached the First XI himself. His father was involved with mini rugby at his club and Paul would play rugby in the morning before playing soccer in the afternoon. On occasions where there was a school soccer game then he had to miss mini-rugby which his father accepted but he never went to watch him play. His PE teacher was a keen athletics coach and Paul would still compete although he did not have time for specific training. His natural talent and fitness ensured that he continued to show great promise. At the age of 15 Paul began to find that his enthusiasm for his sport was waning. He began to miss matches because of injury and on one occasion was late for the bus and was left behind. His father could not persuade him to go to rugby and showed his obvious displeasure. Paul began to spend more time playing on his Play station.
1. Compare and contract cognitive evaluation theory, perceived competence theory and achievement goal theory.
2. Review the evidence suggesting that self-efficacy can predict participation in physical activity.
3. Consider the contextual variables that have been shown to influence the initiation, continuation and discontinuation of sport and exercise, with particular reference to the measures commonly associated with these variables.
4. What are some of the limitations of goal setting as a psychological intervention?
5. Outline and evaluate some of the integrative models that have been developed in relation to participation in sport and exercise.
Duda, J.L. & Hall, H. (2001) Achievement goal theory in sport: Recent extensions and future directions’, in R.N. Singer, H.A. Hausenblas and C. Janelle (eds.), Handbook of Sport Psychology (pp. 417-443). New York: Wiley.
Harwood, C. and Biddle, S. (2002) ‘The Application of Achievement Goal Theory in Youth Sport’, in I. Cockerill (ed.) Solutions in sport psychology (pp. 58-73). London: Thomson.
Marcus, B. and Forsyth, L.H. (2003) Motivating People to be Physically Active. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Roberts, G. C. (2001) (ed) Advances in Motivation in Sport and Exercise. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Vallerand, R.J. and Fortier, M.S. (1998) ‘Measures of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation in Sport and Physical Activity: A Review and Critique’, J.L. Duda (ed.), Advances in Sport and Exercise Psychology Measurement (pp. 81-101). Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology.